Cohen, Matt, and Aaron Dinin. “Keeping Tally with Meaning: Reading Numerals in Walt Whitman’s Manuscripts.” Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 34 (Fall 2016), 120-145. [Examines various arithmetical calculations on Whitman’s manuscript pages and suggests how “a mathematical sideways glance helps make visible a step in the process of poetic creation and the interdependence of Whitman’s mathematical skill and his poetic acts of imagination”; examines “tallying” as “Whitman’s pervasive mathematical metaphor for the poet’s task”; looks at how Whitman’s manuscript calculations at times serve as “mathematical modeling of the physical text”; and explores “Whitman’s basic mathematics education,” in which his “mathematical knowledge was generated within a pragmatic, democratic model.”] Full text available.
Meier, Allison. “When Edward Weston Took Photographs for Walt Whitman’s ‘Leaves of Grass.’” Hyperallergic (October 17, 2016), hyperallergic.com. [Describes Weston’s 1940s project to travel America to photograph scenes for an edition of Whitman’s Leaves of Grass; reviews a new exhibit opening October 22, 2016, at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California, displaying 25 of Weston’s photographs along with selected Whitman manuscripts from the Huntington archives.]
McMullen, Kevin. “New on the Walt Whitman Archive: The Integrated Catalog of Walt Whitman’s Literary Manuscripts.” Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 33 (Fall 2015), 125-129. [Describes the new “integrated catalog” of Whitman’s manuscripts on the Walt Whitman Archive, which now include scans and EAD descriptions of all prose manuscripts of published works.] Full text available.
Folsom, Ed. “Erasing Race: The Lost Black Presence in Whitman’s Manuscripts.” In Ivy G. Wilson, ed., Whitman Noir: Black America and the Good Gray Poet (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2014), 3-31. [Explores the “spectral black presence” that “both haunts and energizes Whitman’s work” as a result of the way that Whitman “systematically erased race from his published writings,” and reads a number of Whitman’s works—including “The Sleepers,” “Song of Myself,” “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d,” “Reconciliation,” Memoranda during the War, and Democratic Vistas—as examples of how “crossing race” generated Whitman’s writing even as racial origins were expunged in the published versions.]
Banion, Kimberly Winschel. “‘The continent of glories’: Geographical Concepts in Historical Literature, 1846-1877.” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2013. [Chapter 2 focuses on Whitman’s journalism, the 1855 Leaves of Grass, and his manuscripts for Brooklyniana, probing whether “his own writings on the crisis with Texas and the U.S.-Mexican War . . . differ in ideology from [George] Lippard’s Legends of Mexico,” and concluding that “just as Lippard found meaning in the U.S.-Mexican War by deeming it an extension of an ongoing War of Independence, so Whitman interpreted the nation’s geography through the lens of his distinctive notion of past, present, and future,” in which “the Revolution was ever-occurring, truly a Revolution without end”; also examines Whitman’s “highly conventional depictions of [George] Washington’s relationship to the U.S.-Mexican War through historical parallels” in his journalism, as well as his “exceptional” focus on “Washington’s defeat at the Battle of Brooklyn and other scenes of loss” in his Brooklyniana manuscripts and in the 1855 poem eventually entitled “The Sleepers”; Proquest Dissertations and Theses (DAI-A 75/04, October 2014).]
Olsen-Smith, Steven. “The Inscription of Walt Whitman’s ‘Live Oak, with Moss’ Sequence: A Restorative Edition.” Scholarly Editing: The Annual of the Association for Documentary Editing 33 (2012), http://www.scholarlyediting.org/ 2012/editions/ intro.liveoakwithmoss.html. [Offers a new edition of Whitman’s twelve-poem sequence “Live Oak, with Moss,” based on a textual analysis that restores the poet’s original version of the poems; argues that Fredson Bowers’ influential 1953 edition of the sequence is flawed, since his “editorial focus on the final versions of the sundered manuscripts was not well suited for ‘Live Oak, with Moss,’ and it resulted in his incorporation of changes that Whitman made to the poems after breaking the sequence apart”; goes on to detail “the transmission of the sequence in the manuscript” and demonstrates that the “restorative edition more accurately conveys the themes and intentions that inform ‘Live Oak, with Moss,’ and more clearly illustrates its significance in the development of Whitman’s thought”; concludes with “an edition of ‘Live Oak, with Moss’ that restores the sequence to its original, integrated state.”]
Whitman, Walt. Walt Whitman’s Songs of Male Intimacy and Love: “Live Oak, with Moss” and “Calamus,” ed. Betsy Erkkila. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2011. [Reprints in facsimile Whitman’s “Live Oak, with Moss” manuscripts (1-37; accompanied by a printed transcription), the 1860 “Calamus” cluster (39-78), and the 1881 “Calamus” cluster (79-98); with a preface (“Manly Love in All Its Moods,” xi-xiii), an afterword (“Songs of Male Intimacy and Love,” 99-162), and a selected bibliography (“‘Calamus’ and Whitman’s Man Love,” 163-167), all by Erkkila.]
Banion, Kimberly Winschel. “‘These terrible 30 or 40 hours’: Washington at the Battle of Brooklyn in Whitman’s ‘The Sleepers’ and ‘Brooklyniana’ Manuscripts.” Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 27 (Spring 2010), 193-212. [Examines Whitman’s portrayals of George Washington in the context of other antebellum portrayals of the general and first president and argues that “what stands apart” in Whitman’s writings is “his recurring focus on Washington’s defeat at the Battle of Brooklyn and other scenes of loss as the defining moments of the future president’s and the fledgling nation’s legacy”; examines Whitman’s unpublished “Brooklyniana” manuscripts as they relate to his developing conception of Washington and as they illuminate the well-known passage in “The Sleepers” of Washington saying farewell to his troops, a scene that captures “the national narrative of defeat and eventual victory that is always tinged with a sense of loss.”] Full text available.
Miller, Matt. Collage of Myself: Walt Whitman and the Making of Leaves of Grass. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010. [Examines Whitman’s early notebooks and manuscripts and argues that Whitman embraced an art of fragments and developed a technique of “cutting and pasting” his lines into poems built around what he called “spinal ideas,” thus developing a kind of proto-collage technique that allowed him to transform his manuscript jottings into the 1855 Leaves of Grass in a very short period of time; also examines Whitman as anticipating modern collage art.]
Genoways, Theodore Howard. "Whitman's Lost War: America's Poet during the Forgotten Years of 1860-1862." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Iowa, 2007. [Uses "unpublished letters and never-before-seen manuscripts in combination with rarely-used newspapers and magazines of the period" to argue that the standard biographical characterization of Whitman--that he was indifferent to the Civil War during its first year and a half--is incorrect; sets out "to recuperate Whitman's active participation in the fervor of the early Civil War period"; DAI-68 (March 2008).]
Unsigned. "Walt Whitman Archive Wins C.F.W. Coker Award." Scarlet [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] 16 (September 14, 2006), 2. [Reports on an award from the Society of American Archivists to the Whitman Archive (www.whitmanarchive.org) for its "breakthrough integrated finding guide to Whitman's poetry manuscripts."]
Barney, Brett, Mary Ellen Ducey, Andrew Jewell, Kenneth M. Price, Brian Pytlik Zillig, and Katherine Walter. "Ordering Chaos: An Integrated Finding Aid and Online Archive of Walt Whitman's Poetry Manuscripts." Literary and Linguistic Computing 20 (2005), 205-217. [Describes in detail the project of the Walt Whitman Archive (www.whitmanarchive.org), in collaboration with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, to create an online "integrated finding guide to Whitman's poetry manuscripts," using EAD (Encoded Archival Description) and linking the item-level descriptions to "digital images of the manuscripts" and to "Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) transcriptions."]
Folsom, Ed. "'Many MS. Doings and Undoings': Walt Whitman's Writing of the 1855 Leaves of Grass." In Anthony Mortimer, ed., From Wordsworth to Stevens: Essays in Honour of Robert Rehder (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2005), 167-189. [Offers "an overview of the nature of the extant manuscripts for the first edition of Leaves of Grass and the often misleading ways these manuscripts have been described in Whitman biography and criticism," examines "a particularly revealing manuscript draft of a section of the untitled 1855 poem (eventually called 'Song of Myself')," and explores "a particular line of that manuscript" (involving "the cow crunching with depressed head") and views the ways that Whitman re-employed that line "in order to suggest the intricate complexity of Whitman's process of revision."]
Schramm, Geoffrey Saunders. "Whitman's Lifelong Endeavor: Leaves of Grass at 150." Humanities 26 (July/August 2005), 24-28. [Describes the various editions of Leaves of Grass and discusses the contribution of the Walt Whitman Archive (www.whitmanarchive.org) in making all the editions and more than 4000 of Whitman's poetry manuscripts universally available.]
Unsigned. "Whitman Speaks to a New Generation." Primary Source (July/August 2005), www.imls.gov/closer/hlt_c0705htm. [Discusses the online integrated finding guide to Whitman's poetry manuscripts (covering over thirty archives) developed by the Walt Whitman Archive (www.whitmanarchive.org) with the support of a Delmas Foundation grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services.]
Cody, David. "'Getting more savage, as I grow older': A Forgotten Glimpse of Walt Whitman." ANQ 17 (Spring 2004), 42-45. [Reprints, from a May 1904 Catalogue of Autographs and Manuscripts (Dodd, Mead), an expanded transcript of Whitman's July 28, 1857, letter (dated 1858 in the catalogue) to an unknown correspondent, and comments on the significance of the new material.]
Scholnick, Robert J. "The Texts and Contexts of 'Calamus': Did Whitman Censor Himself in 1860?" Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 21 (Winter/Spring 2004), 109-130. [Examines the recent controversy over the relationship of the "Live Oak, with Moss" sequence to the 'Calamus' cluster and argues that, "when paired with contextual evidence, an examination of the manuscripts of the 'Calamus' poems offers no basis for [the] charge of self-censorship and defeat" in this sequence of poems.] Full text available.
Walter, Katherine L., and Kenneth M. Price. "An Online Guide to Walt Whitman's Dispersed Manuscripts." Library Hi Tech 22 (2004), 277-282. [Describes a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services and housed at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, to develop an online "unified finding aid to Walt Whitman manuscript collections held in many different institutions," with the goal of "virtually reintegrating dispersed collections of Whitman manuscript materials using the standard for archival description, EAD."]
Benton, Paul. "Elbert Hubbard's Manuscript Muddle: Restoring Whitman's 'Sunday Evening Lectures' on Metaphysics." Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 21 (Fall 2003), 65-79. [Reviews Gary Wihl's edition of Whitman's "Sunday Evening Lectures," examines Elbert Hubbard's bound volume containing the manuscripts, and offers a revised and more coherent arrangement of the manuscript fragments.] Full text available.
Murray, Martin G. "Two Pieces of Uncollected Whitman Journalism: 'Washington as a Central Winter Residence' and 'The Authors of Washington.'" Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 20 (Winter/Spring 2003), 151-176. [Identifies and reprints two previously unrecorded Whitman newspaper articles published in the Washington Evening Star in 1872, and demonstrates their connections to Whitman manuscripts housed in Yale University's Beinecke Library.] Full text available.
Stoddard, Martha. "Whitman's Body of Work Goes Electric." Lincoln Journal Star (November 13, 2002), 1A-2A. [About the Whitman Archive (www.whitmanarchive.org) and a new federal grant to support the development of "an electronic guide to the estimated 70,000 Whitman manuscripts around the world."]
Unsigned. "Professors Receive Funds for Whitman Archive." Scarlet [University of Nebraska-Lincoln] 12 (October 31, 2002). [About Nebraska professors Ken Price and Katherine Walter receiving a grant to support the development of "A Virtual Archive of Whitman's Manuscripts."]
Myerson, Joel, ed. Walt Whitman: A Documentary Volume. Detroit: Gale, 2000. [Volume 224 of the Dictionary of Literary Biography series, with a preface (xiii-xiv), "A Walt Whitman Chronology" (3-8), and bibliographies ("Books by Walt Whitman," 9-10, and "Book for Further Reading," 327-334), all by Myerson; contains a wide variety of reprinted materials under the heading "Whitman and His Contemporaries," including passages from Specimen Days, other essays by Whitman, Horace L. Traubel's "Walt Whitman, Schoolmaster: Notes of a Conversation with Charles A. Roe, 1894" (1895), Whitman's short stories "Lingave's Temptation" and "Little Jane," Emerson's 1855 letter to Whitman, contemporary reviews of Whitman's poetry by Whitman and others, Whitman's various prefaces to editions of Leaves of Grass, an essay by Robert Louis Stevenson ("The Gospel According to Walt Whitman" ), excerpts from Richard Maurice Bucke's Walt Whitman (1883), an essay by Edmund Clarence Stedman (from Poets of America ), an essay by Algernon Charles Swinburne ("Whitmania" ), a memoir by Elizabeth Leavitt Keller ("Walt Whitman: The Last Phase" ), a memoir by William H. Garrison ("Walt Whitman" ), a memoir by Franklin Benjamin Sanborn ("Reminiscent of Whitman" ), a memoir by John Townsend Trowbridge ("Reminiscences of Walt Whitman" ), a memoir by William Roscoe Thayer ("Personal Recollections of Walt Whitman" ), an excerpt from John Addington Symonds's Walt Whitman (1893), an essay by John Jay Chapman ("Walt Whitman" ), an excerpt from George Santayana's Interpretations of Poetry and Religion (1900); also reprints Ed Folsom's " 'Affording the Rising Generation an Adequate Notion': Whitman in Nineteenth-Century Textbooks, Handbooks, and Anthologies" (from Studies in the American Renaissance 1991), 291-309; with an appendix, "Whitman's Revisions of 'Salut au Monde!'" (311-325); generously illustrated, with photographs of Whitman and facsimiles of Whitman manuscripts.]
Unsigned. Fine Printed Books and Manuscripts. New York: Christie's, 2000. [Sale catalogue for December 14, 2000, auction, including "The Leonard R. Levine Collection of Walt Whitman" (lots 147-226, pp. 138-188), with many illustrations, facsimiles, and descriptions of Whitman books and manuscripts; photo of Whitman on cover.]
Whitman, Walt. Selected Poems 1855-1892: A New Edition. Ed. Gary Schmidgall. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. [An edition that sets out "to offer Whitman's poems in chronological sequence and in their first published form," emphasizing in the selection poems from "roughly 1853 to 1860" that the editor judges to be the period of "his finest verse"; also contains Whitman's published and unpublished prefaces, introductions, notes, and afterwords for his various editions; with several appendices ("Poems Published Before Leaves or Posthumously" [413-422], "Significant Passages from Whitman Manuscripts" [423-437], "Whitman's Observations on Leaves of Grass, 1888-92" [438-437], and "Contemporary Reviews of Leaves of Grass" [448-482]); "Introduction" (xv-xxviii), "A Whitman Chronology" (483-484), "Notes on the Poems" (485-516), and "A Select Whitman Bibliography" (517-520), all by Schmidgall.]
Andriano, Joseph. "George Rice Carpenter," "'A Noiseless Patient Spider,'" "Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts," "Parodies," "Society for the Suppression of Vice," "Charles Warren Stoddard," "'To a Locomotive in Winter.'" In J. R. LeMaster and Donald D. Kummings, eds., Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland, 1998), 107, 464-465, 468-469, 505-506, 649-650, 690-691, 726. [Encyclopedia entries.]
Folsom, Ed, and Kenneth M. Price, eds. Major Authors on CD-ROM: Walt Whitman. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1997. [CD-ROM containing the 22-volume Collected Writings of Walt Whitman (New York University Press); facsimiles of 1855, 1856, 1860, 1867, 1871-72, and 1881 editions of Leaves of Grass; Whitman's 1860 Blue Book working copy of Leaves; Drum-Taps and Sequel to Drum-Taps; Two Rivulets; other writings published during Whitman's lifetime; manuscripts and notebooks from the Library of Congress and New York Public Library collections; photographs of Whitman; contemporary reviews of Whitman's work; selected journalism; and additional materials, all fully searchable; with Introduction by Folsom and Price.]
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass: Selected Poems and Prose. New York: Doubleday, 1997. New York Public Library Collectors Edition. [Selection of poems and prose (including An American Primer), with reproductions of photographs and manuscripts from the Berg Collection of the New York Public Library; with an introduction ("About Walt Whitman," xviii-xxxiii) and an annotated bibliography ("Suggestions for Further Reading," 431-438), both unsigned.]
Reich, Kathleen, ed. The William Sloane Kennedy Memorial Collection of Whitmania. Winter Park, FL: Olin Library, Rollins College, 1996. [Annotated and illustrated catalogue of the Kennedy Collection at Rollins College, incorporating Kennedy's papers, a few Whitman manuscripts, some early editions of Whitman's work, and a large collection of books about Whitman; preface by Ed Folsom (v-vi) and introduction by Kathleen Reich (vii-ix).]
Birney, Alice L. "Missing Whitman Notebooks Returned to Library of Congress." Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 12 (Spring 1995), 217-229. [Details the history of the recovery by the Library of Congress of four of the most important of Whitman's original notebooks (and of his cardboard butterfly), missing since World War II; written by a librarian in the Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress who was directly involved in the manuscripts' recovery.] Full text available.
Unsigned. "Missing Whitman Papers Surface After 53 Years." Manuscript Society News 16 (Spring 1995), 45-49. [Tells the story of the return of four missing Whitman notebooks to the Library of Congress and quotes a vice president of Sotheby's, Selby Kiffer, who estimates that if the manuscripts had been sold, the presale price would have been set as high as $500,000.]
Cohen, Susan. Guide to the William D. Bayley Walt Whitman Collection. Delaware, Ohio: Ohio Wesleyan University, 1993. [Pamphlet describing the Bayley Whitman collection at Beeghly Library, Ohio Wesleyan University: "I. The Book Collection" (2); "II. Manuscripts and Memorabilia" (3-11); and "III. Photographs and Illustrations" (12-13); contains facsimiles of selected manuscripts and photos.]
Myerson, Joel, ed. The Walt Whitman Archive. New York: Garland, 1993. 3 volumes in six parts. Volume 1: Whitman Manuscripts at the Library of Congress (in two parts); Volume 2: Whitman Manuscripts at Duke University and the University of Texas (in two parts); Volume 3: Whitman Manuscripts at the University of Virginia (in two parts). [A large collection of facsimiles of Whitman manuscripts, outlines for poems, and corrected proof sheets, culled from the major Whitman archives.]
Mattson, Francis O., ed. Walt Whitman: In Life or Death Forever. New York: New York Public Library, 1992. [Published in honor of the 100th anniversary of Whitman's death, this catalogue reproduces documents from the Berg Collection and the Oscar Lion Collection at the New York Public Library, including the 1854 "Christ likeness" daguerreotype of Whitman, an 1872 Frank Pearsall photograph of Whitman, title pages of Franklin Evans and the 1855 Leaves of Grass, an 1878 ink drawing of Whitman by Herbert Gilchrist, and various prose and poetry manuscripts; with introduction (7) and commentary by Mattson. Publication complements the Whitman Centennial exhibition at the NYPL (March 20 to September 12, 1992).]
Erkkila, Betsy. Review of Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts , ed. Edward F. Grier. The Mickle Street Review 10 (1988), 102-115.
Folsom, Ed. Review of Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts, ed. Edward Grier. Philological Quarterly 65 (Spring 1986), 287-291.
Unsigned. Sotheby's: Fine Books and Manuscripts Including Americana. New York: Sale 5530 (December 15, 1986). [Sale catalogue: items 95-153, headed "Property of Charles E. Feinberg of Detroit, Michigan: Printed and Manuscript Material Relating to Walt Whitman and Horace Traubel," 48-69; includes Whitman illustrations on front and back covers, in 10 items, and lengthy quotations and descriptions, several of unpublished MSS.]
Asslineau, Roger. "Les Toujours Vertes Feuilles d'Herbe de Walt Whitman: Quelques Publications Récentes." Études Anglaises 38:2 (1985), 282-287. [Review of Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts; Walt Whitman, Complete Poetry and Collected Prose Manuscripts; Walt Whitman, Complete Poetry and Collected Prose [Library of America]; James Woodress, ed., Critical Essays on Walt Whitman; Dear Brother Walt: The Letters of Thomas Jefferson Whitman; and Paul Zweig, Walt Whitman: The Making of the Poet.]
Ferlazzo, P. J. Review of Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts, ed. Edward F. Grier. Choice 22 (February 1985), 820.
Loving, Jerome. Review of Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts. American Literature 57 (October 1985), 498-500.
Price, Kenneth M. "Trivia and Poetry: The Range of Whitman's Private Writings." American Literary Realism 1870-1910 18 (Spring/Autumn 1985), 271-277. [Review of Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts, ed. Edward F. Grier.]
Unsigned. "Whitman, Walt [Nine Autograph Letters, 1840-1841]." Sotheby's Fine Books and Manuscripts. New York, May 22, 1985, Item 385. [Facsimile of 1841 unpublished letter from Whitman to Abraham Leech, with three pages detailing the Leech-Whitman relationship; facsimile of the envelopes. These letters, Leech drafts of letters and MS notebook sold for $28,000. Item 386 is an 8-page MS of "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," with the printed poem and autograph revisions and corrections by the poet, with one page in facsimile. The letter to Leech (1841) is reproduced in Saturday Review 11 (September-October 1985), 20.]
White, William. Review of Edward F. Grier, editor. Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts. Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 3 (Summer 1985), 25-27. Full text available.
Burnes, Brian. "A Poet's Scribbles on Leaves of Grass." Kansas City Star (February 25, 1985); rpt. in Newsbank Electronic Index, Literature Index 92 (1984-1985), B6-7. [Review of Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts, ed. Edward F. Grier. Includes comments by Grier.]
Grier, Edward F., ed. Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts. The Collected Writings of Walt Whitman, [Vols. 17-22]. New York: New York University Press, 1984. 6 vols. [Vol. 1: Family notes and Autobiography, Brooklyn and New York: Vol. 2, Washington; Vol. 3, Camden; Vol. 4, Notes; Vol. 5, Notes; Vol. 6, Notes and Index.]
Martin, Roger. "Whitman's Leavings - From Lecture Notes to Love Agonies [in Edward F. Grier's Walt Whitman: Unpublished Notebooks and Prose Manuscripts.]" Explore [University of Kansas] (Spring 1984), 2-4.
Moore, William L. "An Appreciation to Edward Grier." Calamus, Walt Whitman Quarterly, International 26 (December 1984), 30-35. [On Walt Whitman, Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts.]
Whitman, Walt. "From Notebooks and Unpublished Manuscripts." Antaeus 52 (Spring 1984), 184-213. [Excerpts from Edward F. Grier's edition of Notebooks and Unpublished Prose Manuscripts: "Pictures," "[Dante] Spring of '59," "A Visit to the Opera," "To the American Young Men, Mechanics..."]
Blodgett, Harold W. "Walt Whitman's Poetic Manuscripts." West Hills Review 2 (Fall 1980), 28-38.
White, William. "'What is Greatest': Unpublished Whitman?" Walt Whitman Review 20 (March 1974), 37-38. [Reproduced in facsimile is one of three Whitman manuscript fragments recently acquired by the Feinberg Collection. Evidently, the manuscripts were written late in Whitman's life.]
Golden, Arthur. "Passage to Less than India: Structure and Meaning in Whitman's 'Passage to India.'" PMLA 88 (October 1973), 1095-1103. [Examination of key manuscripts indicates that in "Passage to India" (1871) Whitman had a lofty aim but failed to control his material. Because Whitman tried to fuse essentially disparate elements, including three independently conceived poems, "Passage" developed as a kind of patchwork. Moreover, the implications of its themes--death, immortality, the soul--were never fully thought out. Stylistically, the poet relied without success on such conventionalisms as inversions and archaisms. The poems of the 1855-1865 period represent Whitman at his best.]
White, William. "Billy Duckett: Whitman Rogue." American Book Collector 21 (February 1971):20-23. [Printed here are previously unpusblished manuscripts which illuminate the connections between Whitman and William H. Duckett, a young man whom the poet met in Camden in 1884. Between 1886 and 1889, Duckett from time to time boarded the Whitman's Mickle Street house; he often drove the poet's horse and carriage. Although he liked the fellow at first, Whitman eventually concluded that Duckett was a "young scoundrel."]
Broderick, John C. "The Greatest Whitman Collector and the Greatest Whitman Collection." Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress 27 (April 1970): 109-28. [The greatest collector of research material on the life and work of Whitman was Whitman himself. Today the largest and most comprehensive collection in the world of Whitman books, manuscripts, correspondence, memorabilia, and miscellaneous material resides in the Library of Congress, thanks chiefly to the Library's acquisition in 1969 of the Charles E. Feinberg Collection (which is here partially described).]
Dixon, Ymelda. "Feinberg Exhibit Opens." (Washington, D.C.) Evening Star, 24 May 1969, p. A-6. Yesterday marked the opening of an exhibition of manuscripts, books, and memorabilia at the Library of Congress in commemoration of the sesquicentennial of Walt Whitman's birth. The acquisition of the Charles E. Feinberg Whitman collection "is a major landmark in the library's history."
Feinberg, Charles E. "A Collector Tells of His Fun." Long-Islander, 29 May 1969, Whitman Sesquicentennial Edition, pp. 1-2. During a half-century of collecting Whitman books, manuscripts, and letters, the author has experienced a number of pleasant adventures, happy coincidences, and lucky discoveries.
Martin, Judith. "'I've Lived...With Whitman.'" Washington Post, 28 May 1969, p. E6. Charles E. Feinberg, who has been collecting Whitman manuscripts and memorabilia for over fifty years, has arranged for his entire collection to pass to the institution to which Whitman had always hoped his papers would go--the Library of Congress.
White, William. "Charles E. Feinberg: Book Collector." Private Library (Pinner, Middlesex, England), Second Series, 1 (Summer 1968), 63-73. [Noted for his services to libraries and universities and for his generosity to scholars, Feinberg owns what the New York Times has called "one of the world's largest Whitman collections." In his possession are thousands of Whitman manuscripts, letters, notebooks, diaries, proofs, first editions and other books, materials from Whtiman's library, photographs, and memorabilia.]
Feinberg, Charles. "Forgeries of Whitman MSS and Letters." Long-Islander, 25 May 1967, Section II, p. 6. [One measure of Whitman's importance in our time is that his manuscripts and letters are valuable enough, i.e., high-priced enough, to attract a number of forgers.]
Broderick, John C. "An Unpublished Whitman Letter and Other Manuscripts." American Literature 37 (January 1966), 475-78. [Several Whitman manuscripts heretofore overlooked exist in the John Russell Young Papers in the Library of Congress. One is a letter by Whitman (dated 23 August 1867) protesting the New york Tribune's omission of about seventy lines from a poem that was eventually to be called "The Return of the Heroes."]
Davenport, John L. "A Presentation to Oscar Lion." Long Island University Journal 1 (June 1966), 18-19. [Oscar Lion became deeply interested in Whitman in 1918. He began collecting Whitman books, manuscripts and letters, eventually amassing over five hundred pieces.]
Doyle, P. A. "The Walt Whitman Exhibit at Nassau Community College Library." Library Newsletter (Nassau Community College, Garden City, N.Y.) 1 (May 1966), 1-4. [Provided here is a bibliography of the materials assembled and exhibited at the May 1965 Whitman festival at Nassau Community College. Listed are books, manuscripts, letters, photographs, woodcuts, and a variety of wall displays.]
White, William. "Author at Work: Whitman's Specimen Days." Manuscripts 18 (Summer 1966), 26-28. [By comparing Whitman's rough draft of "The First Frost--Mems" (a sketch eventually published in Specimen Days) with the fair copy he sent to the printer we can witness the writer at work. We see that Whitman was as meticulous with his prose as he was with his poetry.]
Feinberg, Charles E. "Walt Whitman: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow." Nassau Review 1 (Spring 1965), 1-18. [Over the years, many developments have contributed to Whitman's reputation: thousands of books and articles on his life and work; dozens of translations of his poetry;the formation of Whitman societies and fellowships; annual meetings and dinners; commemorative celebrations; exhibitions of Whitman books, manuscripts, letters, photographs, and memorabilia; the poet's election to the hall of Fame (1931); shrines and memorials; statues and plaques; even appearances in commercial advertising.]
Furness, Clifton Joseph, ed. Introduction to Walt Whitman's Workshop: A Collection of Unpublished Manuscripts (New York: Russell & Russell, 1964), 1-24. [Reprint of the Harvard University Press (1928) edition.]
White, William. "In Whitman's Hand." American Notes and Queries 2 (February 1964), 86. [Among the Whitman manuscripts in the Northwestern University Library is a page containing twenty lines of poetry written entirely in the poet's hand. Evidence suggests that they are not Whitman's. Who wrote them?]
Gordan, John D. "New in the Berg Collection: 1959-1961." Gulletin of the New York Public Library 67 (December 1963), 625-638. [Among the many books and manuscripts recently added to the Berg Collection of the New York Public Library are two Whitman items: a copy of the first (1855) edition of Leaves of Grass (originally consigned to William Horsell, bookseller of London) and a copy of Franklin Evans (uncut and in original wrappers).]
White, William. "A Thousand and One MSS by Walt Whitman." Orient/West (Tokyo) 8 (July-August 1963), 69-80. [There are more than a thousand and one Whitman manuscripts in the Charles Feinberg Collection in Detroit, and they are of inestimable value in illuminating the poet's creative process or in solving textual and biographical problems.]
White, William. "The Feinberg Collection." Long-Islander (30 May 1963), Section II, 8. [The Feinberg Collection contains many materials dealing with authors other than Whitman. Regarding Whitman, it contains two long commonplace books, 15 notebooks, a wordbook, 1028 autograph letters or cards (signed by Whitman), more than 1500 letters to Whitman, and well in excess of 1200 unpublished manuscripts. The high point of the collection is Emerson's famous letter to Whitman (dated 21 July 1855).]
Feinberg, Charles E. "Adventures in Book Collecting." Among Friends (Detroit Public Library), no. 26 (Spring 1962), 1-6. [The author provides an anecdote-filled account of his experiences as a collector of Whitman books, letters, and manuscripts.]
White, William. "Walt Whitman's 'Elegy': An Early Poem?" Notes and Queries, n.s. 9 (June 1962), 227-228. [Among the manuscripts of the Feinberg Collection is "Elegy." Is this an early work by Whitman? Or is it a poem which Whitman copied for use in the account or history of Brooklyn which he once planned to produce?]
White, William. "Whitman as Short Story Writer: Two Unpublished Manuscripts." Notes and Queries 9 (March 1962), 87-89. [Contained in the Feinberg Whitman Collection are two unfinished manuscripts dealing with a didactic, melodramatic, and sentimental story about a courtesan. Consisting of an outline, notes, and two paragraphs presumably constituting an opening for the story, the manuscripts are reproduced here.]
Anonymous. "A Variorum 'Leaves of Grass.'" American Book Collector 11 (May 1961), 5. [The Whitman variorum now in progress may require three volumes; it will trace the migration of the poems of the various editions of Leaves of Grass and "show the history of each line and passage, not only in printed survivals but in significant changes in surviving manuscripts." It will also present a section which includes rejected poems, poems published outside the Leaves, and poems found in MS only.]
Faner, Robert D. "The Use of Primary Source Materials in Whitman Study." Emerson Society Quarterly, no. 22 (First Quarter, 1961), 10-12. [Manuscripts, facsimile editions, notebooks--indeed, all kinds of "workship" material--can lead the student of the graduate seminar to a profound awareness of Whitman's sources, methods, meanings, and significants.]
Grant, Rena V. "The Livezey-Whitman Manuscripts." Walt Whitman Review 7 (March 1961), 3-14. [The Herman Livezey-Whitman Collection, acquired by the University of California at Berkeley in 1959, consists of 120-odd manuscripts. Among other items, it includes rough drafts of essays published in Specimen Days, letters, nature jottings, memoranda of Whitman's 1879 sojourn to Kansas and Colorado, and a short poem ("Wood Odors").]
White, William. "How to Become Eminent; or, Life Among the Feinberg MSS." Walt Whitman Birthplace Bulletin 4 (July 1961), 3-7. [White's serious work on Whitman began in 1955, when Charles E. Feinberg of Detroit made available to him the vast resources of his library. Feinberg's Whitman materials, which includes books, association items, letters and hundreds of manuscripts, make his literary collection one of the world's greatest.]
Grant, Rena V. "Discovery of Whitman Papers." New York Times (13 December 1960), 30. [In a connection with the recent discovery of a Whitman poem several newspapers have stated that the poet traveled to California. At no time did Whitman visit the West coast. Responsible for bringing a number of Whitman manuscripts to California was Susan Stafford, a member of the family whom Whitman often visited in Glendale, New Jersey.]
Lowenfels, Walter. "Walt Whitman's Civil War." Walt Whitman Review 6 (September 1960), 52-53. [That Whitman planned to write a "comprehensive," one-volume history of the Civil War is revealed by an 1863 letter to James Redpath and by several clues which appear in unpublished manuscripts. The poet never executed his plan, but Walt Whitman's Civil War, to be published in 1960, gathers together and organizes the material that WHItman would have used had he been able to write his account.]
Bowers, Fredson. "The Walt Whitman Manuscripts of 'Leaves of Grass' (1860)." In Textual and Literary Criticism. The Sandars Lectures in Bibliography, 1957-58 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959), 35-65. [Whitman's autograph manuscripts for the third edition of Leaves of Grass, all of which were written between 1857 and 1860, are significant for two reasons: (1) they contain previously unknown information about Whitman's personal life and important facts about his "literary biography," for they show the growth of the 1860 Leaves during three obscure and mysterious years, and (2) they prove false the picture of Whitman as "Fancy's child, warbling his native wood-notes wild." Whitman "built" his poems, revising scrupulously, painstakingly.]
Grier, Edward F. "Walt Whitman." Notes and Queries 5 (June 1958), 271. [A request for information regarding the location of Whitman notbooks, diaries, memoranda, and unpublished prose and manuscripts.]
Lüdeke, H. Review of Bowers ed., Whitman's Manuscripts. English Studies (Amsterdam) 39 (August 1958), 174-75. [See 1955.A5.]
Mayfield, John S. "Shake the Hand that Shook the Hand of Whitman." Manuscripts 10 (Fall 1958), 50-52. [The author in 1929 met Ernest Rhys, who, as a youth of twenty-eight, had often visited Whitman. Rhys was editor of Everyman's Library and one of Whitman's champions in England.]
Sparke, Archibald. "Walt Whitman." Notes and Queries 5 (July 1958), 322. [Professor Grier may find of value the large collections of Whitman manuscripts and pamphlets in the libraries at Bolton and Rylands in Manchester.]
Hollis, C. Carroll. "Whitman and the American Idiom." Quarterly Journal of Speech 43 (December 1957), 408-420. [New evidence from manuscripts in the Feinberg Collection demonstrates the magnitude and scope of Whitman's interest in the American language. On scraps of paper and in a homemade book entitled Words, Whitman recorded notes on etymology, folk tales, and regional speech, comments on vocabulary and grammar, and lists of slang phrases, idiomatic expressions, and the lingo of workmen.]
Allen, Gay Wilson. Review of Bowers, ed., Whitman's Manuscripts. Modern Language Quarterly 17 (June 1956), 173-174.
Blodgett, Harold W. "'Take My Leaves, America!'" Virginia Quarterly Review 32 (Winter 1956), 147-150. [Review of Whitman's Manuscripts: Leaves of Grass (1860), edited by Bowers.]
Bowers, Fredson. "The Manuscripts of Whitman's 'Song of the Redwood-Tree.'" Publications of the Bibliographical Society of America 50 (First Quarter, 1956), 53-85. [A diplomatic reprint of two autograph manuscripts of "Song of the Redwood-Tree." The first is an early, perhaps the earliest, semiconnected form of the poem; the second is a draft relatively close to a fair copy. The "Song" first appeared in Harper's for February 1874.]
Bradley, Sculley. Review of Bowers, ed., Whitman's Manuscripts. Modern Philology 54 (November 1956), 139-141.
Davidson, Edward H. Review of Bowers, ed., Whitman's Manuscripts. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 55 (January 1956), 177-181.
Gohdes, Clarence. Review of Brewer, comp., Walt Whitman: A Selection of the Manuscripts, Books, and Association Items Gathered by Charles E. Feinberg; Bowers, ed., Whitman's Manuscripts; and Allen, The Solitary Singer. Modern Language Notes 71 (November 1956), 545-547.
Semans, Mary Biddle Trent. "Josiah Charles Trent as a Collector." Library Notes (Duke University), no. 32 (December 1956), 1-5. [Trent was a great collector of medical material and of Walt Whitman volumes and manuscripts. In the early 1940s he donated his Whitman collection to the Duke University Library.]
Silver, Rollo G. Review of Bowers, ed. Whitman's Manuscripts. American Literature 28 (May 1956), 241-243.
Bowen, Dorothy, and Philip Durham. "Walt Whitman Materials in the Huntington Library." Huntington Library Quarterly 19 (November 1955), 81-96. [Of the seventy items listed, twenty-six are books and articles, six are proofs and offprints and the rest are manuscripts, including letters. Omitted from the list is printed material about Whitman. Also excluded is manuscript material written to the poet or about him.]
Bowers, Fredson, ed. Whitman's Manuscripts: Leaves of Grass (1860), A Parallel Text. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955. [Well over half of the 146 new poems contained in the third edition of Leaves of Grass (1860) are presented here in manuscript versions, with the unpublished manuscript on the left-hand page, facing the published text of the same poem in 1860. An introduction (xxi-lxxiv) and meticulous bibliographical descriptions accompany the diplomatic reprint. The Valentine-Barrett manuscripts represent outstanding resources for the student of Whitman's biography and artistic methods.]
Brewer, Frances J., comp. Walt Whitman: A Selection of the Manuscripts, Books and Association Items Gathered by Charles E. Feinberg: Catalogue of an Exhibition held at the Detroit Public Library. Detroit: Detroit Public Library, 1955. [Most of the 387 items here were written during Whitman's lifetime and originally perserved by the poet's personal friends. The material is arranged under six headings: (1) Manuscripts (1-47), (2) Letters (48-87), (3) Proofs and Offprints (88-97), (4) Books (98-116), (5) About Walt Whitman (117-120), (6) Books Among the most prized items is the poet's Commonplace Book, a day-by-day account (from 1876 to 1890) of Whitman's literary and social activities, friendships, habits, health, and finances.]
Cameron, Kenneth W. "Three Ungathered Whitman Manuscripts." Emerson Society Quarterly, no. 1 (4th Quarter, 1955), 8-9. [Two of the manuscripts are postcards; one is addressed to William Michael Rossetti, the other to F. B. Sanborn. The third piece is a letter fro Whitman to Richard Maurice Bucke.]
Daiches, David. "The Centenary of Leaves of Grass: Two Whitman Catalogues." Book Collector 4 (Winter 1955), 324-326. [Review of Brewer, Walt Whitman: A Selection of the Manuscripts, Books and Association Items Gathered by Charles E. Feinberg, 1955.]
Dubester, Henry J., et al., comps. Walt Whitman: A Catalog Based Upon the Collections of the Library of Congress. With Notes on Whitman Collections and Collectors, by Charles E. Feinberg. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1955. [This compilation is more than the catalog of an exhibition; it is actually a bibliography of the largest collection of Whitman materials housed in one institution: manuscripts, published writings, critical and biographical works, pictorial materials, and musical settings for verse. The catalog lists 289 manuscript items, 26 works of biography and criticism, and 1055 items in all.]
Kenner, Hugh. "Whitman's Multitudes." Poetry 87 (December 1955), 183-189. [Review of Allen, The Solitary Singer; Allen, ed., Walt Whitman Abroad; Bowers, ed., Whitman's Manuscripts; Brewer, Walt Whitman; Clark, Walt Whitman's Concept of the American Common Man; and Hindus, ed., Leaves of Grass One Hundred Years After (1955). "Even more than Yeats, Whitman has been removed from the critic's province to the biographer's, the poems turned into a man; even more than Swift, the man has been turned into a case, unfailingly bewildering: the Genius as Imposter, say, or The Good Gray Pansy."]
Sanderlin, Wallace Stephen, Jr. "The Growth of Leaves of Grass, 1856-1860: An Analysis of the Relationship of the Valentine-Barrett Manuscripts to the Third Edition." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1955. [The Valentine-Barrett manuscripts reveal the chronology and manner of composition of Whitman's major new poems for the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. In addition, they demonstrate that Whitman was a careful, even relentless, craftsman.]
Stark, Lewis M., and John D. Gordon, comps. Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass: A Centenary Exhibition from the Lion Whitman Collection and the Berg Collection of the New York Public Library. New York: New York Public Library, 1955. [Lists 113 items, including the "Blue Book," all the various editions of Leaves of Grass, and over 40 manuscripts and letters by Whitman. Each item is annotated in great detail.]
Anonymous. Walt Whitman: Catalogue of an Exhibition held at the American Library, Lndon, March-April, 1954. London: United States Information Service, 1954. [Describing an exhibition assembled largely through the efforts of Charles Feinberg, this catalog lists 35 manuscripts, 46 letters, 11 proofs, 26 books, and 17 association items. Underlying this collection of material is a theme--"Whitman's literary friends." Many items are connected with Whitman's acquaintances in the British Isles.]
Bowers, Fredson. "Whitman's Manuscripts for the Original 'Calamus' Poems." Studies in Bibliography 6 (1953), 257-265. [Among the Valentine-Barrett manuscripts are twelve poems (here reprinted) entitled "Live Oak, with Moss." These form the nucleus of the biographically significant and later greatly expanded cluster of poems printed in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass for the first time under the heading of "Calamus."]
Kebabian, Paul et al. Walt Whitman: The Oscar Lion Collection. New York Public Library, 1953. [A list of over 500 books, articles, letters, manuscripts, and miscellaneous items by or about Whitman. The "stars" of the collection are Whitman's volume of the second issue of Leaves of Grass and his own copy of the Boston, 1860-1861 edition, the famous "Blue Book." Reprinted in 1954.]
Finkel, WIlliam L. "Sources of Walt Whitman's Manuscript Notes on Physique." American Literature 22 (November 1950), 308-331. [For many years Whitman read and saved articles concerning health, physical perfection, and longevity. New evidence reveals that his manuscripts on the subject of "physique," with one possible exception, are not original contributions but are instead adaptations or word-for-word excerpts from such articles.]
Gohdes, Clarence and Rollo G. Silver, eds. Preface to Faint Clews & Indirections: Manuscripts of Walt Whitman and His Family (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1949), vii-x. [The papers in this volume, which are from the Trent Collection at Duke University, provide information concerning Whitman's reading, his methods of composition, his friendships, his family. They will probably be of greatest value to the poet's future biographers.]
Anonymous. "The Whitman Collection: Some New Manuscripts." Library Chronicle (University of Pennsylvania) 14 (April 1947), 29-31. [The University has just acquired nine Whitman manuscripts, all of which will be of great value in the process of establishing a definitive variorum text.]
England, Grace A. An Exhibition of the Works of Walt Whitman. Detroit, MI: Friends of the Detroit Public Library, 1945. [List of 322 Whitman items displayed in May 1945 at the Detroit Public Library. Includes published works, manuscripts, autograph letters, biography and criticism, portraits, and miscellanea. Most items followed by descriptive notes.]
Frey, Ellen Frances. Catalogue of the Whitman Collection in the Duke University Library: Being a Part of the Trent Collection, given by Dr. and Mrs. Josiah C. Trent. Durham, NC: Duke University Library, 1945. [The catalogue is divided into twelve main sections, of which that devoted to Whitman manuscripts is the most extensive and important--193 manuscripts (which include 37 letters) are cited and described. Other sections list books and periodicals containing contributions by Whitman; books, pamphlets, articles and manuscritps about or relating to Whitman; editions, proofs and offprints of his writings; poems set to music; portraits; bibliographies; clippings gathered and annotated by the poet.]
Naumburg, Edward, Jr. "A Collector Looks at Walt Whitman." Princeton University Library Chronicle 3 (November 1941), 1-18. [The author's collection includes manuscripts, photographs, corrected proof sheets, scarce pamphlets, presentation copies, and all the editions of Leaves of Grass printed during Whitman's lifetime. Whitman, the most fiercely discussed of all our authors, is the "foundation stone of an American library."]
Coad, Oral S. "Whitman vs. Parton." Journal of the Rutgers University Library 4 (December 1940), 1-8. [Recently acquired manuscripts (chiefly letters to and from William Sloane Kennedy) fill out the story of Whitman's $200 debt to James Parton. "Without dishonest intentions [Whitman] could be lamentably casual in money matters."]
United States, Library Of Congress. A List of Manuscripts, Books, Portraits, Prints, Broadsides, and Memorabilia in Commemoration of the One Hundred and Twentieth Anniversary of the Birth of Walt Whitman [May 31, 1819-1939] from the Whitman Collection of Mrs. Frank Julian Sprague of New York City Exhibited at the Library of Congress 1939. 1939. [Lists and describes items of the collection, including letters, editions of Whitman, secondary material. Many copies are from personal libraries of figures significant in Whitman biography and criticism. Preface by Harriet Sprague announces her desire to assemble "a Whitman reference library."]
Anonymous. "New Whitman Gems Revealed at Capital." Brooklyn Daily Eagle (21 August 1938). [Auslander explains his discovery of Whitman manuscripts and clippings at Library of Congress; notes tobacco cuttings and apple peels in the box of manuscripts and Whitman's erasures.]
McCusker, Honor. "Leaves of Grass: First Editions and Manuscripts in the Whitman Collection." More Books (Bulletin of the Boston Public Library) 13 (May 1938), 179-92. Illustrated with facsimiles. [Only recently has criticism of Whitman achieved any real compromise between heroic myth and snobbish contempt. Through tracing the Boston Library's Whitman collection, started by Bucke, the history of Leaves is followed from the 1855 Preface, "a vital contribution to criticism," through the second edition (more artistic than the first) to his tamed exuberance and strengthened mysticism after the war. His revisions for "Locomotive," "Eidólons," "Out from Behind This Mask," "Come, said my Soul," are explained. Letters to and from Whitman in the collection are quoted, revealing an old man's "pathetic weariness and melancholy." Whitman's principles were "clearness and simplicity," along with an appreciation for "values of rhythm and tone."]
Anonymous. First Editions, Autograph Letters, Manuscripts, Standard Sets . . . Willetts . . . Gould . . . Paine . . . Armour . . . 1937. New York: American Art Association, p. 180, Item No. 432. Reported in Bergman.
Glicksberg, Charles I. "Walt Whitman in New Jersey, Some Unpublished Manuscripts." Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 55 (January 1937), 42-46. [Describes Whitman's nineteen years in Camden, his publishings in local papers, including possibly some anonymous articles which have not been discovered.]
Anonymous. "Whitman Manuscripts Bring Total of $13,489." New York Herald Tribune (17 April 1936). [Notes sales from Bucke collection (1936).]
Rains Galleries. First Editions, Autograph Letters and Manuscripts of Outstanding Importance. 1936. New York: Rains Galleries, pp. 70-85. [This description of items to be auctioned lists Whitman items: copies of his works, his will; letters, manuscripts, described in laudatory terms.]
Schwartz, Dr. Jacob. Manuscripts, Autograph Letters, First Editions and Portraits of Walt Whitman. 1936. New York: American Art Association, Anderson Galleries, 127 pp. "Strong Sensual Germs" (foreword), by Christopher Morley, 5 pp. [Morley describes this catalogue of Bucke's Whitman collection of "miscellaneous personalia" as a vivid biography of Whitman through its multiplicity of material. His best writing "represents humanity at large singing in its tub--a kind of frank booming improvisation--grave, innocent, and clean." Whitman's notes for poems reveal him as "the patient reconsiderer of the word," continuing to revise. He is wise, to be cherished in every scrap. The catalogue's prefatory note calls each scrap of paper listed "a link in the great chain of thought that finally established a new literature," here presented in approximate chronological arrangement. The sections, with many items quoted or summarized, are as follows: "Building the Man: Genealogy and Biography of the Whitman Family and its Influence on the Poet"; "The Gestation Years"; "Building the Poet: Preparatory Reading and Thought"; "Building 'Leaves of Grass'"; "'Leaves of Grass': The Poetic Interpretation of America through a Personality" (early drafts of 1855 Leaves, many fine passages not appearing in the published work; through his natural attitude toward the human being and religion Whitman broke the bonds of a stilted and hypocritical era of literature); "Big Brother to the Boys in Blue and Gray" (letters from and to soldiers); "The Character of Walt Whitman Revealed in Letters from His Family" (Bucke's work, 1883, is actually Whitman's autobiography, since he supplied the information and revised the book; character of family members is described); "Walt Whitman's Autobiography" (emendations to 1883, in manuscript); "Contemporary Opinion of Walt Whitman"; "The Second Preparatory Period"; "Maturity and Fame"; "The Edifice Completed" (notes change of punctuation and capitalization in 1881 Leaves, perhaps under Boston's influence); "The Final Revision of 'Leaves of Grass'" (revisions of major poems and groups noted); "The Last Phase" (including a note by Bucke asking Whitman about his children, a query Whitman dismissed as being no problem, 23 December 1891).]
Glicksberg, Charles I., ed. Walt Whitman and the Civil War: A Collection of Original Articles and Manuscripts. 1933. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 201 pp. Index. [Introduction: Whitman was involved in the war effort before going to Washington, as shown by these articles on his visits to New York hospitals in 1862. Barton's often unsubstantiated claims (1928) are answered. The war's profound influence on Whitman produced a stronger notion of the Union, developed his patriotism, strengthened his book's nationalistic purpose, although his health seemed to prevent his completing a true book about the war and his experience of it; his fragmentary accounts are nevertheless immediate, emotionally intense, vivid and honest. Part 1. Original Writings--City Photographs: Articles signed Velsor Brush in the New York Leader, 1862, here reprinted, are probably written by Whitman, as shown here, and reveal his activities in hospitals and New York life. Manuscript notes, poem drafts, unpublished letters (to soldier Lewis Brown, Trowbridge, his mother, Abby Price), Brooklyn Daily Union article are printed, with discussion, revealing his personality, concerns, style. Part 2. Manuscript Material, Diary for 1863: Whitman's notes on various aspects of the war, hospitals, and Lincoln are printed and discussed; some fragments throw light on Whitman's method of composition. Appendix: List of newspaper clippings Whitman made, evidence of "the nature of Whitman's interest and his reactions to many phases of the Civil War," possible source material for him as well.]
Dole, Nathan Haskell. "In the Workshop of Walt Whitman." Boston Evening Transcript Book Section (9 February 1929), 3:3-5. Photograph. [Favorable review of Furness (1928), noting a few apparent errors in Furness's transcription of Whitman's manuscripts. Whitman's methods of composition are described, which often lost him "the grace of inspiration." This volume will contribute to Whitman's "rapidly extending fame."]
McAree, J. V. "Walt Whitman Boosted His Own Writings." Toronto Mail and Empire (4 December 1929), 8:4. [While Whitman is "easily the most important" poet of America, he deserves less respect as a man, being a bit of an ingrate, living off the world and his friends, and being his own press agent, as Holloway reveals (1929), although genius may be allowed some disagreeable habits. Whitman's misinterpretation of the facts of his reading at the American Institute Fair is noted. He considered the price paid for his poetry by a paper as equivalent to its value, but high prices paid for manuscripts can hardly be regarded a literary judgment.]
Barton, William E. Abraham Lincoln and Walt Whitman. 1928. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 277 pp. Illustrated. Index. [Barton's initiating motive was to discover the truth about Whitman in relation to Lincoln by looking at firsthand, contemporary information, including Whitman manuscripts. These, particularly a notebook Whitman kept on his trip to find his brother in December 1862, reveal him as less than honest in his later accounts exaggerating the extent of his hardship and work. His hospital work is described, begun when he was a paid delegate of the United States Christian Commission, which he never credited after he went off on his own. He seems to have built up his otherwise praiseworthy volunteer efforts in order to get a comfortable government job. His fatness and poor living habits make his breakdown understandable. Rankin's memories of Lincoln and Leaves (1916; 1924) are largely imaginary, since there is no evidence to corroborate his stories, which he published only after those who might verify them were dead. The source of O'Connor's story in 1866 of Lincoln saying about Whitman, "Well, he looks like a man!" (often misquoted), is shown as a letter, reprinted in facsimile, apparently a joke or forgery. Lincoln seems never to have known or known of Whitman. Whitman's Lincoln lecture, reprinted here in various forms beginning with the New York Sun version of 12 February 1876, based its narrative of the assassination on Peter Doyle's eyewitness account; contrary to the usual estimate, evidence exists only for nine deliveries of it. Whitman and Lincoln shared many similar qualities, most notably their faith in democracy and love for the nation. In Lincoln, Whitman saw the incarnation of the America he had been singing. He transformed his earlier material emphasis into a notion of spiritual progress for America. (Despite Barton's claim to accuracy and careful research, some errors occur, not all sources are identified, and he perpetuates without evidence the accusations of irresponsible paternity, involvement with prostitutes, and celebration of himself over Burroughs's name in 1867 and his 1890s writings.)]
Furness, Clifton Joseph, ed. Introduction to Walt Whitman's Workshop: A Collection of Unpublished Manuscripts. 1928. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, pp. 3-24. [The value of these unpublished manuscripts is explained for clarifying the purpose and growth of Leaves. Whitman's notebooks indicate the evolution of his political, social, and philosophical ideas. His mode of expression also develops, closer to meditation than inspiration: Whitman works from a trance, alert and aware, then revises extensively. The manuscripts are divided into the following sections, with introductory notes pointing out historical and biographical background: "Notes for Lectures," "Anti-Slavery Notes" (which remained undeveloped by Whitman), "The Eighteenth Presidency," "Introductions Intended for American Editions of 'Leaves of Grass,'" "Introduction to the London Edition," "To the Foreign Reader," Appendix (miscellaneous fragments), Notes (Furness provides bibliographical information). Facsimiles are printed.]
Gregory, Horace. "New Walt Whitman Manuscripts Are Revealed." New York Evening Post (1 December 1928), sec. 3, 8. [Review of Furness (1928), "valuable background" which may lead to "an honest revaluation of Whitman and his work." His medium became poetry rather than lectures as "a by-product of his enthusiasm for his cause," "his only chance of becoming fully articulate." While his poetry underwent many changes, his attempts to put forth his ideas in prose were made with much more difficulty. His democratic principles appear in his lecture notes, as does his eloquent style, known through his poetry.]
Cable, William F. The Renowned Collection of the Late William F. Gable of Altoona, Pennsylvania: First Editions, Autograph Manuscripts and Letters of English and American Authors. 1923. New York: American Art Association. [Auction catalogue with many Whitman items: Part One (1923), Items 861-950; Part Three (1924), Items 610-627; Part Four (1924), Items 1104-1159; Part Five (1925), Items 960-981; Part Six (1925), Items 1049-1076.]
H[opkins], F[rederick] M. "Rare Books, Autographs and Prints." Publishers' Weekly 103 (16 June 1923), 1839. [Fawcett's survey (1923) attests to the popularity of Whitman already observed in the auction room. Whitman first editions and manuscripts will continue to increase in value.]
J[ayne], H. H. F., ed. The Letters of Horace Howard Furness. 1922. Vol. 1. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., pp. xxxiii, 234, 345-46. [Letter to S. Weir Mitchell (30 September 1885): Whitman is in no need; he gives Furness strength through "his grand imperturbable paucity." An 1897 letter to his sister discusses the editing of Whitman's works, which should be expurgated (though then they might not sell); recalls pleading with Whitman for expurgation, which Whitman said "'would break the ensemble of my nature.'" He was a poseur all his life, regarding his financial status, his learning, the effortlessness of his poetic utterance (contradicted by manuscripts which Furness has). The best thing about him was "his godlike face and mien," for which Furness complimented him, to his honest acceptance.]
Romm, Charles. Collection of First Editions, Manuscripts and Inscribed Copies of Esteemed English and American Authors. 1921. New York: American Art Association. [Items 626-701 of this auction catalogue are Whitman books and manuscripts, here described.]
Anonymous. "Walt Whitman's Mss." London Daily Telegraph (8 July 1913). Quoted in Willard. [Notes small price for which a collection of Whitman manuscripts was sold.]
Binns, Henry Bryan. A Life of Walt Whitman. 1905. London: Methuen & Co., 369 pp. Index. Illustrated. [Sources beyond published material include unpublished manuscripts and information from Whitman's personal acquaintances, as acknowledged in footnotes. Throughout the book, the contemporary American scene and spirit are described as necessary for understanding Whitman. His character had an early tinge of puritanism. A romance in New Orleans is conjectured from various evidence, including "Once I Pass'd" and Whitman's letter to Symonds. Whitman recognized science and philosophy as "essential, not hostile, to poetry." His progressive integration of character and his mystical experience are described. His message was "rather of self-assertion, than of self-surrender." His various works are explained as they appear, with his unique religious emotion, self-reviews, perception of everything as symbolic, notion of comrades, Quaker traits, ambivalence toward war, friendships. After its culmination in the 1860 Leaves, Whitman replaced his self-assertion with "helpful love." Vistas is discussed as "a scathing attack upon American complacency," with a contrasting faith in "the heroic character of the people." The poems of the "Passage" period reveal an interest in formal perfection, although they are less elemental than the earlier poems. Whitman is related to literary and philosophical predecessors and contemporaries, especially Carlyle, Mazzini, Emerson, Thoreau, Browning, Tolstoy, William Morris, Nietzsche, George Fox. He was neither socialist nor individualist, but sought a "society of Comrades" which required simultaneous development of social consciousness and individual independence. Of the two orders of poetry, "the song of the Nightingale" and "the flight of the Eagle," Whitman lacks the former's allusive grace, but only the very greatest poets of all time can unite and reconcile the two. His funeral is described through Doyle's responses. Appendices present information on Whitman's maternal grandmother's family and Traubel's letter to Carpenter regarding Whitman's allusions to his having children.]
Williamson, George M[illar]. Catalogue of A Collection of Books Letters and Manuscripts Written by Walt Whitman In the Library of George M Williamson. 1903. Jamaica: Marion Press; New York: Dodd Mead & Co. [Introductory note describes editions and facsimiles. This catalogue is a desciptive bibliography of Whitman's published work, with facsimiles of title pages, manuscript poems and letters, other Whitman items.]
Lanier, Sidney. The English Novel: A Study in the Development of Personality. 1897. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 45-47, 50-65, 121-22. Reprint of 1883 with changes. [The changes, restorations from Lanier's original manuscripts, include admissions of some appreciation of Whitman; the paragraph from 1883 is included. See 1933.]
Kennedy, William Sloane. "A Peep into Walt Whitman's Manuscripts." Conservator 7 (June 1896), 53-55. [Whitman constantly revised, thinking on paper a great deal. The drafts of "Come, said my Soul" are discussed. Not all of his changes, though deliberate and reasoned, were for the better.]