In Whitman's Hand

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About this Item

Title: Henry 8th

Creators: Walt Whitman, Unknown

Date: Undated

Source: The Charles E. Feinberg Collection of the Papers of Walt Whitman, 1839–1919, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Transcribed from digital images of the original item. Versos of all pages feature the same "City of Williamsburgh" stationery as pictured for surface 2, each with a number written in an unknown hand.

Whitman Archive ID: loc.03407

Contributors to digital file: Lauren Grewe, Ty Alyea, Nicole Gray, and Matt Cohen



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Henry 8th—1509–1546

Under Mary, nearly 300 persons were burnt, for religious heresies

Edward 6th, (9 years old) 1546–1553

Mary—1553–1558—(Lady Jane Grey executed)

Elizabeth—1558–1602.

entree upon Royalty greeted with popular joy

She, with Parliament, [illegible] established the reformed religion,—superseding the papal Roman Catholic

1568 (Mary Stuart fled to England, and was imprisoned by Elizabeth.)


———

Execution of Duke of Norfolk for conspiring against the royalty of Elizabeth


———

1586—Mary Stuart executed


———

Philip of Spain, bigoted Catholic, (Revolt of Netherlands)—which the English assisted) proceed to invade England—got up the "Invincible Armada." —Spain then perhaps the

Leading power of the world) —English in great alarm —("this was the critical struggle, for and against the Reformation)— grand naval battle between the Spanish armada under the Duke of Medina Sedonia, and the English fleet under Effingham, Drake, Hawkins and Forbisher—
—English triumph—and defeat and dispersal of the Spaniards.—

☞ It was no English triumph—it was the elements that destroyed the Spanish armada

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(Elizabeth continued)

Earl of Essex in great favor (he 30, and Elizabeth 60, years of age,)

—the English turn the tables upon Spain—

—Irish rise, under Earl of Tyrone— Essex goes to subdue them, but fails—returns home—misbehaves— is arrogant and disobedient— plots to get command of the palace and ^the queen's person—
—tries to arouse the Londoners in his behalf—no go—is arrested, tried, condemned— [es co?] has the horrors—confesses—
(here—the romantic despair of Elizabeth, who has to sign the death‑warrant— Essex is beheaded.— Elizabeth now rapidly fails,—her heart is broken—she falls fell into a half‑stupid condition, broken by spasms—died, aged 70—in the 45th year of her reign.

—The greatest strength, progress, material wealth, and literary glory of England, date from her reign.—


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(Elizabeth continued)

Sir Walter Raleigh, the beginner of Virginia, Spenser, Shakespeare, Bacon, Hooker, and others.—

1602— James 1st of England (6th of Scotland) —1602–1625

(came acceptably to the people) Gunpowder plot— to blow up Parliament— Parliament to meet Nov. 5 1605 —Guy Fawkes seized

The sagacity with which the king had discovered the plot had raised the public opinion of him—

1612

Yet afterward the folly with which he gave himself up to his favorites undeceived the nation


———

—The episode of Sir Walter Raleigh—
—who had long been imprisoned in the Tower—his voyage for the "gold mine" in Guiana (South America,)—his return and execution—


——————————

Villiers' (Buckingham) romantic expedi‑
tion to Spain)


———

Wars against Spain, and Germany—
—misfortunes—death—1625


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1603 Accession James 1st
1625 " Charles 1st.

(In due time, Rebellion, War, the Parliament until)

1649—The Commonwealth
1660—Restoration of Charles 2d

———
  • In France
1610 Louis 13th
1643 Louis 14th—(aged—(6 years)
1715 Louis 15th
  • England
1685—James 2d
1689—"[illegible] Revolution" —William & Mary
1694 William
                                                                                       WJames 2d died at St. Germains Sept. 1701
1702, Anne
1714, George 1st
1727 George 2d
1760 George 3d

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Charles 1st 1625–1648

(now athe great moral, social, and political commotion is aroused in the [illegible] minds of men —that has had such dark fortunes and bright fortune——that cannot cease— and has come down to our times—


———

In want of funds, Charles tries to raise them on his own prerogative ^[ship money?], &c.—which deeply offends the Commons—


———

War against France


——————————

Crisis between Charles and the Parliament—he dissolves it— they adopt an address, in strong language—


——————————

Buckingham assassinated


——————————

1629—Charles makes peace— he now takes Wentworth (afterward Earl of Strafford,) and Lord Archbishop of Canterbury into power and friendship


——————————

—cause of popular rights against royalty—


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(Charles 1st continued)

—Trouble in Scotland, on religious grounds—the king still arbitrary—and the new—parliament dissolved for not giving in to his desires—the episode, etrial, and execution of Strafford—
—the rising in Ireland [of?] the Roman Catholics, —the mur ^indiscriminate slaughter of many thousand Protestants—the appearance gro sterner and sterner visage of the public—the developement of the republican spirit, its appearance in speeches and pamphlets—
—the high liberal tone (1641) in Parliament—the inconceivable arrogance and rashness of Charles, who going in person to the House of Commons to arr seize those who had spoken


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(Charles continued)

against him—his then his retraction and ^various ignomin‑
ies—then open rupture between the king and Parlia‑
ment—war (1642)—the designations of the two sides, Cavaliers and Roundheads—the queen arriving from Holland with [re?] help in men and money to help the king— the peo body of the English people declaring for the Parliamentary side—the first campaign—Hampden killed—Lord Falkland also—
—the ^national Parliament becoming republican—the a counter parliament called held by the king at Oxford—
—hostilities renewed—(1644)—


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—the deputation of two thousand women to the national Parliament, vehemently demanding "Peace"—
—the battle of Marston- Moor, the beginning of the downfall disasters of Charles
the Scotch having [joined?] the Parliamentary army,—and Oliver Cromwell now [moving?] up, ^app advancing a victorious militaire— —the trial and execution of Land—
—puritanism brought forward—the battle of Naseby, (June 14, 1645) the gr a ^the ^a decisive victory of the Parliament army— and last attempt of the king—the retreat to Oxford—the king's resolve to give himself up to the Scotch—they give him up to the Parliaments,


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receiving 400,000 £— Cromwell coming forward, stronger and stronger—
—the army b becoming the state, the controlers of power,—
—divisions among the victors—Cromwell seizing pow command, through his popularity with the soldiers— his summary treatment of all who stood out against him—the last struggles between of the Commons and against the army junction of and Cromwell— with and—the Independents— "Pride's Purge"—Cromwell in possession—the kings trial brought, to trial, dejected, shorn deprived of all the insignia of royalty, to but dignified—the lesson, the ^stern triumph of the people—


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—the execution of Charles, Jan. 30, 1648—
—Cromwell in Ireland, against the risen Cath‑
lics, his sweeping vic success and severity there—^young Charles 2d in Scotland, and the people for him——Cromwell in Scotland, victorious—
—his rapid movements ^backthe his victory at Worcester—the new rule soon prevailing in all parts of Great Britain—war with Holland— —English naval victories combat under Blake—Dutch under Van Tromp—
—the petition of the army to Parliament for old arrears of pay—
anger ^and refusal of Parliament—Cromwells marching to Parliament and clearing the House—a new one called, in Cromwell's interest—they


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resign power to Cromwell—he is declared Protector, (Dec. 16, 1653) —Gen. Monk—adminis‑
trative wisdom of Cromwell—his home and foreign movements successful—refuses the title of king, offered him by Parliament (1657)— retains that of "Lord Protector"—the great illustrious name England had now [illegible][gained?] upon the seas— death of Blake,—(1657) —death of Cromwell, (Sept. 23d 1658,)—the Richard Cromwell, his son, is placed in the Protectorship—his feebleness ^and withdrawal—


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—the Commonwealth rapidly falls to pieces—
—Monk and Fairfax agree to the restoration of Charles 2—^—the occurrence of that event, May 8, 1660—
—the inglorious marks of the reign—the disinterment and defilement of the dead bodies of Cromwell, Bradshaw, Ireton, [Dorislaus,?] May, Pym, Blake, and of Cromwell's mother and of his daughter— the ^beheading of Sir Henry Vane and, hanging of Covenanters, (1661)—the king's secretly selling himself to the French, (Louis 14th)—the Plague in London—the triumphant contest between of the Dutch,


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under the Prince of Orange against the English and French—
—the general war, (1676) in the Low Countries in Spain, Sicily, the Upper and Lower Rhine, in Sweden, in the German Provinces, in the Mediterranean, the Ocean, and the Baltic sea —Charles receivedal ^of large subsidies from Louis 14th—
—treaty ^of Peace with the Dutch States General——marriage of Prince of Orange marries with Mary, —daughter of the Duke of York, Charles's brother,—the popish Titus Oates plot—
the Catholic and Protestant fury raging in the government— the Duke of York's influence strongly for the Catholics, making him very unpopular with the people—


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—the continued turmoil, troubles, [religious?] ^restlessness and fears of the people—the Commons passing a bill ^(1679) (1680) to cut off the Duke of York from the Succession, but the king refuses to sancti confirm it— further supplies from Louis 14th—the Commons indignant against the Duke of York and the dan alarmed at the pending danger from Roman Catholic supremacy—
^—the Habeas Corpus act passed— the Rye House Plot— the exposure, ^trial, and conviction of many noblemen—the torture applied—the Earl of Bedford offering 100,000£. to save his son's life—
—the public mind more and more inflamed ^and feverish,— and suspicious—


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—the death of Charles 2d, (Feb. 6, 1685—James 2d in assumes power, now king, (the ^previous Duke of York,)—attends mass in public—receives money from Louis 14th— Monmouth's rebellion ass rebellion and assumption of the title of king—his defeat and execution—
several numerous executions for heresy,— or rebellion, or harboring religious malcontents—some, for those offences, sent as sold as slaves to the Wes American planta the West Indies— Elizabeth Gaunt, an aAnabaptist, burnt at Tyrburn,—for religious offences—


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—introduction of —the Roman Catholic forms introduced in public—great public—the national anger—the Prince of Orange called by many invited to come to England and assume power— his landing in England, (Nov. 6, 1688,)—all the abandonment of James, who and his withdrawal, powerless to France, (Dec. 25, '88)—the reign of William and Mary, (the attempt of James in Ireland and of his adherents in Scotland—William soon eventually puts them both down—a—the warlike years the active '90 '91 '92 and '93 '9[illegible] and '94—from '90 to '96 98— ^—the death of the queen—the active movements of William on land and sea—


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(? in Literature)

—death of William, (March 8, 1702—accession of Queen Anne—the Earl of Marlborough— the war with Spain— the peace——the ^complete junction of Scotland and England by the Act of Union, (March 4, 1707,)—the attempt of the Pretender in Scotland—the war with France— Prince Eugene—Peace with France, (1713) —death of Queen Anne, (Aug. 1, 1714)— accession of George 1st——the feeble conspiracies some attempts to for the restoration of the Stuarts—
—the Pretender in Scotland, with an army—his defeat and flight—the Triple


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Alliance ^treaty between England, France, and Holland, (Dec. 1716,)—the movements of Charles 12th of Sweden—the king's continual visits to his own [country?], Hanover, Germany— the South Sea Scheme— Walpole in power— Dean Swift—Death of George 1st, (June 11, 1727,),—and accession of George 2d— Queen Caroline—the king prefers being in Hanover—Maria Theresa in Germany—
—no remarkable events to 1740—Frederick the Great, in Prussia—


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—the [invasion?] attempt of "the young Pretender," (1743, '44, to '45 6) in Scotland—
—his defeat and flight—
^—death of Philip 5th of Spain —^the spirit of trade and internal [int?] improvement begin are thought of attended encouraged by appears in Parliament, and in its bills, (1750,) ^—political essays, newspapers,—"Constitutional Queries"—
—the "old styles" of dates is abandoned, and the Gregorian calendar substituted—improvements and inventions arise— printing increases— schools—War with France, (1755,)—Admiral Byng—(1758) various military and naval operations in America—


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—(1759) events in Battle of Quebec, Wolfe killed, the English taking the city—George 2d suddenly dies, (Oct. 25, 1760,)— accession of George 3d—British operations in India—notwithstanding the wars that [prevailed?]trade commerce advancing with rapidity —the o ranks of merchants, working artisans, traders, and mechanics, becoming more and more important— the Press ^—arts, music, painting &c.—in the F great subtle and W witty French writers, Voltaire, Rousseau, Voltaire—the French Academy— Encyclopedia —Francais—


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America rising ^taking place in the ^political considerations of Europe—Russia appearing also— William Pitt— Lord Bute—the peace of 1763—Great Britain now in general possession of North America,as col—the British national debt, 148,000,000 £.—
—the first mutterings of the American troubles —the stamp act, (1765) —contest of Wilkes with the Court—Hyder Ali's is rising in Asia—
—the contest between


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Wilkes and the Court party(1765, '70, '71,)—
grea (tr). (the idea of benevolent reforms dates from these times— many barbarous la criminal laws are repealed or modified)—
—the affairs of Poland —that kingdom dismem‑
bered and divided among Russia, Germany, ^and Prussia—
—the tea‑tariff,for America—the resistance of Boston, (1774)— Congress—Colonial delegates appointed chosen, and convene in Philadelphia—the emeutes of Concord, ^and Lexington, the and battle of Bunker Hill,—(1775)


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—the union of the Colonies,—no appearance of retraction on the part of the English ministry—the session of the Colonial Congress in Philadelphia,—
—Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, and the rest—and finally the drawing up and passing, the on the 4th of July, 1776, the Declaration of Independence, and the outset of the United States of America as a nation


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(With reference to territories, movements, conflicts of jurisdiction, and t affairs with the aborigines, [A?] the reader must recollect that at that that time, of course ^there existed none of the geographical divisions now regularly marked, as the lines of the State of New York, &c. New York New Netherlands, and New York after it, consisted of the tract of Manhattan Island, Staten and Long Islands, the adjacent shore, (now ^of New Jersey,) and certain tracts up the Hudson, to Albany.—


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1643 March

—The Indian war with the aboriginal tribes, much blood shed—quite serious— (under Kieft's governorship,) —this war raged seriously on Long Island)


———

———
the boweries, (farms)

This War (1643–'4) was a serious one, and raged much of the scene of it being Long Island, and even in Brooklyn.— The colonists were in great jeopardy, many of their boweries (farms) were dest destroyed, and men and women forced to flee to Fort Amsterdam for protection.—


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1664

By the terms of Stuyvesant's capitulation the free trade to Holland was secured, the Dutch Reformed Religion war not to be infringed upon in any way, and the Dutch law of inheritance was maintained, giving an equal inheritance to all the children.

1664

at this time Brooklyn was an ample collection of Boweries, (farms,) with the nucleus of houses, hostelries, stores, &c. ^near the ferry, and on on the street leading down to it.— Some Many of the ho farm‑houses were ^of brick, large and comfortable, and covered with tiles brought from Holland.—


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Between Virginia and the New Netherlands an amicable feeling always existed.—


———

 


1664

A Royal Charter, under Charles 2d conveyed donated a great extent of territory (named New York, in honor of the donee,) to James, Duke of York, afterwards James 2d.— (For the English had always claimed, (as see back on other slip)


———

James also purchased the all up all prior grants, especially that of Lord Sterling to Long Island,)


———

1666 Aug.

James dispatched three ships, with six hundred soldiers, which, after stopping in Massachusetts, and receiving a cold reception, proceeded to Manhattan.—


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  • Characters Persons that have trod the soil of Brooklyn
Penn (1682) (founder? of quakers)
Washington
Lafayette

1683

Of the ten counties ^constituting the colony province under the first Dougan's charter Sloughter (1691) (1683) Long Island formed three.—


———

 


Printing "Press" paragraph

During Under the Dutch and early English Governors there was no printing,— the English authority expressly prohibiting it as calculated to stir up the people, and endanger jeopardize the established rulers


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1630—70—80—&c

Missionaries went among the aborigines, to instruct them, and make them religious.—


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"Press" x article

—James 2d, (him whom the name of the city of New York ^still commemorates,) in his instructions to the Royal Governors, introdu (1685–'89) specially commanded them to prohibit the prevent the introduction of printing presses, and the establishment of newspapers in their the colonies.— This was ^equally the sentiment ^wish of ^William and Mary, and of other of the monarchs after him them.—.—


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"Press"

In the One clause in the Royal instructions provisions for the government of the Province of New Jersey, (1702) was that no printing press, nor the printing of any book or pamphlet was to be allowed, without the a special license from the king's Governor


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(among "Picture of Life" &c

Pirates, Buccaniers, and privateersmen were not wanting among the visitors to these parts parts—and even pirates, prop under thin disguise, came hereto buy sell and sell buy.—.— All tThese spent their money freely, and the times were indulgent toward their kind of life; great ^European princes were in the same line, on a larger scale.— The seas were at times infested with these rovers[;?]; but ^though, to do them their [weaponry?] justice, most of them robbed without bloodshed.— In New York, Capt. Kidd ^(1700) was well known, and not unpopular


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Of the those jealous contests and fears of other usurping parties, making settlements, it is now clear that the true policy to have been pursued ^by each settlement was not to have helped and supported every other settlement, English, Dutch, Swedish, French, or what not; for that would have contributed to the general future prosperity of all of any of the rest—and there was oceans of room for all.—These Those Of the Bickerings and ^little [a?] fights that greatly retarded the growth of the colonies—

tr up

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For the first ^forty or fifty years of the colony's existence, Brooklyn was its most important portion.parttT southern island of Manhattan was ^mostly sterile, and had a merely served for the a rude fort on its southern point and a few trade‑huts.— on its near by.— under their protection.— It was the place of business only


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The Revolution grew out of the determination of the Colonies not to submit

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                  ———

1633 Walter Van Twiller, (appointed Governor in place of Minuits) brought out from Holland an hundred and four soldiers, a schoolmaster, and a clergyman—All this time, however, and for some year the principal thought of those who had control of affairs was not settlement for good, but trade and gain.— The exports from the colony Fort Amsterdam, for the year, amounted to $57,000


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See page 16—(vol 2) Appendix

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Co‑equal The Dutch element in America clustering around Brooklyn, where it first definitely rooted began, and ^it first struck its roots in the soil of the New World, is co‑equal with the two elements of the Plymouth Puritan and the Virginia Cavalier, and in several important points respects the first Dutch [member?] ^ first‑named takes precedence of the other two.—It is now to be seen in


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^To‑day and henceforth in the United States, The results of it are ^first as strong in their character, their politics, and their personnel, of the present day a[illegible]s as the results of the other two; though ^but, for certain reasons, they are the Dutch is of a kind, to make far less likely, for certain reasons, to celebrate themselves itself less in speeches and in literature.—


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The non‑protection by law of French Protestants, through—The revocation of the Edict of Nantes, (1685,) which and the non‑protection of Fre sent numerous emigrants to America, to New York among the rest &—many settling on Long Island.—


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—and needed not the support consent of a wavering and ignorant multitude."—


———

The West India Company was largely concerned in the slave trade, and at various times, (1610–'608) African slaves were imported in larger or smaller lots into Breukelyn and the other portions of the colony.— These slaves, however, mostly belonged to the West India Company; and it is certain there was, from the first, a number of the inhabitants immigrants, both from Holland and England, who looked with sternness and disfavor on the traffic.—


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The American Revolution ante‑dates through the whole range of the first half or three‑quarters of a century that preceded it—the affair of Leisler ^(1691)—the ^printer of the "Weekly Journal," (1735)—the trial of its printer, John Peter Zenger— the celebrated speech ^upon that occasion of the aged ^and eloquent Hamilton, promulging among the people of the province, in the most an open and a determined manner, the most


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radical doctrines of popular right, and the freedom of the press, and all the mainn reservations ^(never old, never new,) of individual freedom, against the invasions of the crown, unscrupulous power, or its deputies—these were so much nutriment and so much light to prepare the way for the rebellion of '76.— It is a fact, also, that from the year 1700 onward, the party substantitial party which which, gave


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birth to, ^after giving birth to it, ^first embodied, con‑ tinued on, and has handed down to this day, that a a firm and coherent theory of [equa?] radical democratic government which is ou at last the ^national characteristic of the United States, had its existence in New York.—only;; and that, while individual specimens of prominent talent, on that side, appeared at various times, especially about the era of the Revolution, a substanctial conscientious Democratic Party, arising arising as before said, about the year 1700 and bequeathing


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the keeping of up the its watch‑
fires year after year, through good fortune and bad fortune, for the best part of a century, is not found to be found any where in the cColonies except here in New York.—


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John Bunyan—1628–'88
Swedenbor[gh?]g—1688–1772
Montaigne—1533–1592
([S?]ee Le. Herrig's volume)
also "German Literature"

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In [running?] list of events do not forget the France under the reign of Louis 13th, ^Anne of Austria Louis, 14th and ^Louis 15th


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(see Arsene Houssage)



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