In Whitman's Hand

Marginalia

About this Item

Title: Cultural Geography Scrapbook

Creator: Walt Whitman

Annotation Date: Between 1850 and 1860

Base Document Citation: Unknown, [Blank scrapbook] (Unknown, Date unknown).

Whitman Archive ID: owu.00090

Source: The Bayley-Whitman Collection, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH. Transcribed from digital images of the original item. For a description of the editorial rationale behind our treatment of the marginalia and annotations, see our statement of editorial policy.

Editorial Note: At one time this scrapbook likely contained numerous additional manuscript pages that were later removed and sold at auction as separate items. Transcriptions and images of these manuscripts, as well as a brief introduction to the scrapbook and an image viewer of the full document in its current form can be found in the Archive's special section dedicated to the scrapbook.

Contributors to digital file: Caterina Bernardini, Regan Chasek, Kevin McMullen, Caitlin Henry, Ashlyn Stewart, and Matt Cohen


Key


Whitman's Hand | Highlighting | Paste-on | Laid in | Erasure | Overwrite



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look in Census Reports.—

  • Language
  • Religion
  • Numismatics (coins & medals)
  • Topography (description of a city town, or place.)
  • Geography
  • Government, (politics, parties)
  • Marriage
  • Physiology
  • Phrenology
  • Literature
  • Education (schools, teachers, leading philosophs)
  • Commerce
  • Manufactures
  • Products, agriculture, mines &c.
  • Rivers, bays, ports,
  • Climate
  • [cut away]aws, Jurisprudence;
  • the Medical art
  • The fine arts pictures, statues
  • labor saving machinery
  • Architecture—(both city & country

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  • Crime Criminals, &c
  • Prisons
  • Legislation
  • Newspapers
  • Tariffs,
  • Farming
  • Ancestry
  • Who are the most eminent men? Also women?

  • Trades, mechanics, &c
  • Servants and Masters
  • Slavery
  • Death
  • Cheapness & dearth
  • luxury
  • wages
  • domestic animals
  • artificial drinks
  • soirees

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  • licentiousness
  • Markets;
  • Amusements, (festivals, ^ games holidays )
  • War
  • Iron
  • Police
  • Architecture


    Fortifications

  • ? Individual freedom
  • Insurance,—
  • Condition of women
  • Furniture
  • [cut away]anners, Social usages, customs,
  • Diet, Food, (cooking)
  • Costumes
  • Public meetings
  • Railr Travel, (roads, railroads, ships, steamers canals
  • Holidays
  • Post-offices, (mail)(expresses)
  • N[illegible]me
  • Aqueducts
  • Music, sculpture, painting,

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  • fisheries
  • what heroes ?—most eminent per[cut away]
  • poetry—poets ?

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    Erpetology (from Gr) of reptiles

    By Cuvier into 4 orders

  • 1st Chelonians—tortoises, turtles, &c
  • 2d Saurians—lizards, crocodiles, &c
  • 3d Ophidians—slow worms, serpents, &c
  • 4th Batrashians—frogs, toads, newts, &c
——————————
  • visits
  • health
  • longevity &c.
  • Cleanliness
  • Philosophy
  • Marine, both of
    peace & war

    War

  • (look at Phrenological list)
  • weights and measures
  • express

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Persons

——————————

In "History & Geography of the World," introduce every where lists of persons—the great persons of every age and land.


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NAMES OF THE ARTS AND SCIENCES.

The following names are introduced here, not only for exercise in memorizing isolated words, but with the hope that their perusal may awaken a desire to know their signification, in a better knowledge of the arts and sciences to which they relate.

  • 1 Acoustics.

    hearing or sound

  • 2 Aeronautics.

    navigating the air

  • 3 Agriculture.
  • 4 Alchymy.
  • 5 Algebra.

    computing abstract quantities, by help of signs or symbols

  • 6 Anatomy.
  • 7 Archery.
  • 8 Architecture.
  • 9 Arithmetic.
  • 10 Astrology.
  • 11 Astronomy.
  • 12 Book-keeping.
  • 13 Botany.
  • 14 Casuistry.

    affairs of conscience

  • 15 Chemistry.
  • 16 Chirography.

    hand writing

  • 17 Chronology.
  • 18 Craniology.
  • 19 Dialectics.

    —reasoning

    word by Plato for metaphysics

  • 20 Dialling.

    from "day"—an instrument to show the time of day

  • 21 Dynamics.

    matter in motion moving power

  • 22 Electricity.
  • 23 Elocution.
  • 24 Entomology.

    insects



11


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[cut away]

  • 25 Ethics.

    (right or wrong) morals

  • 26 Etymology.
  • 27 Galvanism.
  • 28 Geography.
  • 29 Geology.
  • 30 Geometry.
  • 31 Geoponics.

    agriculture

  • 32 Grammar.
  • 33 Gymnastics.
  • 34 Harmonics.
  • 35 Horology.

    measuring time

  • 36 Horticulture.
  • 37 Hydraulics.
  • 38 Ichthyology.
  • 39 Jurisprudence.
  • 40 Lithography.
  • 41 Logic.

    reasoning connection of ideas

  • 42 Magic.
  • 43 Magnetism.
  • 44 Mathematics.
  • 45 Mechanics.
  • 46 Metaphysics.
  • 47 Meteorology.

    weather air

  • 48 Mineralogy.
  • 49 Mnemonics.
  • 50 Music.
  • 51 Navigation.
  • 52 Optics.
  • 53 Ornithology.
  • 54 Ortheopy.

    pronunciation

  • 55 Orthography.
  • 56 Osteology.

    science of all that relates to the bones

  • 57 Pathology.

    causes, effect, and differences of diseases

    57 Pathology the causes, effects differences, &c. of disease.

  • 58 Pharmacy.
  • 59 Philology.

    59—Words—Languages—Etymology, grammar, rhetoric, poet & criticism—phonology, and ideology

  • 60 Philosophy.
  • 61 Physic.
  • 62 Physics.
  • 63 Physiology.
  • 64 Pneumatics.

    Weight, pressure, elasticity &c of elastic fluids, especially the atmosphere

  • 65 Politics.
  • 66 Rhetoric.

    elocution

  • 67 Sculpture.
  • 68 Statistics.
  • 69 Stenography.
  • 70 Surgery.
  • 71 Tactics.
  • 72 Theology.
  • 73 Topography.
  • 74 Trigonometry.
  • 75 Typography.
  • 76 Zoology.
  • Theosophy—divine wisdom and illumination


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  • Ethnology—the science of the different races of men, and their origins.—
  • ? Sociology

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NUMERICAL KEY. 13

CAPITALS OF AMERICA AND EUROPE.

    Ottawa

  • 1 Kingston, Canada.
  • 2 Washington, U.S.
  • 3 Mexico, Mexico.
  • 4 St. Salvador, Guat.
  • 5 Bogota, New Grenada.
  • 6 Caraccas, Venezuela.
  • 7 Quito, Ecuador.
  • [illegible] Lima, Peru.
  • [illegible] Chuquisaca, Bolivia.
  • [illegible] Rio Janeiro, Brazil.
  • [illegible] Assumption, Paraguay.
  • [illegible] Montevideo, Uraguay.
  • 13 Santiago, Chili.
  • 14 Buenos Ayres, La Plata.
  • 15 Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 16 Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • 17 St. Petersburg, Russia.
  • 18 Hanover, Hanover.
  • 19 London, England,
  • 20 Amsterdam, Holland.
  • 21 Brussels, Belgium.
  • 22 Berlin, Prussia.
  • 23 Dresden, Saxony.
  • 24 Stutgardt, Wurtemburg.
  • 25 Munich, Bavaria.
  • 26 Berne, Switzerland.
  • 27 Paris, France.
  • 28 Madrid, Spain.
  • 29 Lisbon, Portugal.
  • 30 Turin, Sardinia.
  • 31 Florence, Tuscany.
  • 32 Rome, Papal States.
  • 33 Naples, Naples.
  • 34 Vienna, Austria.
  • 35 Constantinople, Turkey.
  • 36 Athens, Greece.

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[FIGURE: Engraving of ruins]

CONTENTS.

———

Introduction.

[illegible]N PAGE
I.—GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 9
II.—SHAPE OF THE EARTH 9
[illegible]II.—MOTIONS AND MAGNITUDE OF THE EARTH 10
IV.—GLOBES AND MAPS 10
V.—LATITUDES AND LONGITUDE, &c. 10
VI.—ZONES AND CLIMATES 11
[illegible]II.—DIVISIONS OF THE LAND 13
[illegible]III.—DIVISIONS OF THE WATER 13
IX.—NATURAL AND POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 14
X.—GOVERNMENT 15
XI.—RELIGION 15
XII.—OCCUPATIONS OF MANKIND 16
[illegible]III.—LANGUAGES OF MANKIND 17

View of the World.

XIV.—GEOGRAPHICAL OUTLINE 18
XV.—HISTORICAL OUTLINE 18
XVI.—DISPERSION OF MANKIND 19
LESSON PAGE
XVII.—WESTERN HEMISPHERE 20
XVIII.—EXERCISES ON MAP OF WESTERN HEMISPHERE 21
XIX.—EXERCISES ON MAP OF EASTERN HEMISPHERE 22
XX.—EASTERN HEMISPHERE 2[illegible]

North America.

XXI.—GENERAL VIEW 25
XXII.—THE UNITED STATES 26
XXIII.—HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATE[illegible] 30
XXIV.—NEW ENGLAND 34
XXV.—STATE OF MAINE 36
XXVI.—STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE 38
XXVII.—STATE OF VERMONT 40
XXVIII.—STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS 42
XXIX.—STATE OF RHODE ISLAND 46
XXX.—STATE OF CONNECTICUT 48
XXXI.—THE MIDDLE STATES 50
XXXII.—STATE OF NEW YORK 52


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General View U.S. page 136

6 CONTENTS.

LESSON PAGE
XXXIII.—STATE OF NEW JERSEY 56
XXXIV.—STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA 58
XXXV.—STATE OF DELAWARE 61
XXXVI.—STATE OF MARYLAND 62
XXXVII.—DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 64
XXXVIII.—THE SOUTHERN STATES 67
XXXIX.—STATE OF VIRGINIA 68
XL.—STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 73
XLI.—STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA 75
XLII.—STATE OF FLORIDA 78
XLIII.—STATE OF GEORGIA 80
XLIV.—STATE OF ALABAMA 82
XLV.—STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 84
XLVI.—STATE OF LOUISIANA 85
XLVII.—STATE OF TEXAS 91
XLVIII.—THE WESTERN STATES 95
XLIX.—STATE OF ARKANSAS 97
L.—STATE OF MISSOURI 99
LI.—STATE OF TENNESSEE 101
LII.—STATE OF KENTUCKY 103
LIII.—STATE OF OHIO 106
LIV.—STATE OF INDIANA 109
LV.—STATE OF ILLINOIS 111
LVI.—STATE OF MICHIGAN 114
LVII.—STATE OF WISCONSIN 118
LVIII.—STATE OF IOWA 120
LIX.—TERRITORIES—MINNESOTA 123
LX.—KANSAS AND NEBRASKA 124
LXI.—INDIAN TERRITORY 125
LXII.—TERRITORY OF NEW MEXICO 127
LXIII.—THE PACIFIC REGION 129
LXIV.—TERRITORY OF UTAH 130
LXV.—STATE OF CALIFORNIA 131
LXVI.—OREGON AND WASHINGTON 134

LXVII.—GENERAL VIEW OF THE U. STATES
136
LXVIII.—THE POLAR REGIONS 138
LXIX.—RUSSIAN AMERICA 140
LXX.—BRITISH AMERICA 141
LXXI.—NEW BRITAIN, CANADA, NEW BRUNSWICK, &c. 143
LXXII.—REPUBLIC OF MEXICO 146
LXXIII.—GUATIMALA, OR CENTRAL AMERICA 150
LESSON PAGE
LXXIV.—WEST INDIES 151
LXXV.—VIEW OF SEPARATE ISLANDS 152
LXXVI.—DISCOVERIES OF COLUMBUS 157

SOUTH AMERICA.

LXXVII.—GENERAL VIEW 159
LXXVIII.—GUIANA 161
LXXIX.—VENEZUELA 162
LXXXX.—REPUBLIC OF NEW GRANADA 163
LXXXI.—REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR 165
LXXXII.—REPUBLIC OF PERU 166
LXXXIII.—REPUBLIC OF BOLIVIA 167
LXXXIV.—REPUBLIC OF CHILI 168
LXXXV.—PATAGONIA 169
LXXXVI.—BUENOS AYRES, OR THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC 170
LXXXVII.—REPUBLIC OF URUGUAY 171
LXXXVIII.—REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY 172
LXXXIX.—EMPIRE OF BRAZIL 172
XC.—THE ATLANTIC OCEAN 174

Europe.

XCI.—GENERAL VIEW 177
XCII.—UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 187
XCIII.—ENGLAND 188
XCIV.—WALES 193
XCV.—SCOTLAND 194
XCVI.—IRELAND 197
XCVII.—FRANCE 199
XCVIII.—SPAIN 204
XCIX.—PORTUGAL 207
C.—ITALY 208
CI.—GREECE 214
CII.—TURKEY 217
CIII.—EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA 219
CIV.—KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA 222
CV.—GERMANY 223


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CONTENTS. 7

[illegible]VI.—SWITZERLAND 226
[illegible]II.—BELGIUM 227
[illegible]III.—HOLLAND 228
[illegible]IX.—DENMARK 229
[illegible]CX.—NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND LAPLAND 231
[illegible]XI.—RUSSIA IN EUROPE 232

Africa.

[illegible]XII.—AFRICA. 235
[illegible]III.—NORTHERN AFRICA 236
[illegible]IV.—EGYPT AND NUBIA 238
[illegible]V.—WESTERN AFRICA 239
[illegible]VI.—CENTRAL AFRICA 239
[illegible]II.—SOUTHERN AFRICA 240
[illegible]II.—EASTERN AFRICA 240
[illegible]X.—ISLANDS OF AFRICA 241

Asia.

LESSON PAGE
CXX.—ASIA 243
CXXI.—RUSSIA IN ASIA 245
CXXII.—TURKEY IN ASIA 246
CXXIII.—ARABIA 251
CXXIV.—PERSIA 255
CXXV.—AFGHANISTAN AND BELOOCHISTAN 256
CXXVI.—INDEPENDENT TARTARY 257
CXXVII.—HINDOSTAN, OR INDIA 258
CXXVIII.—FARTHER INDIA 261
CXXIX—CHINESE EMPIRE 263
CXXX.—EMPIRE OF JAPAN 265

Oceanica.

CXXXI.—OCEANICA 266

———

CXXXII.—GENERAL VIEWS OF THE EARTH 269


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8


PUBLISHERS' NOTICE.

———

THE object of this work is to furnish a Geographical and Historical View of the World in a condensed form, suited, as a Book of Reference, to the use of Families, Merchants, Editors, Travelers, and the great mass of general readers.

The Author is the oldest, and, universally acknowledged, one of the most entertaining and reliable Geographers and Historians now living. Under the name of Peter Parley he is very favorably known to the masses of society, and his writings are

"Familiar in their mouths as household words."

This is his last, best work, in which he gives, in connection with the Geography of the World, an interesting and authentic History of Every Important Event that has transpired from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time.

It contains 272 quarto pages, illustrated with 200 Engravings, and 80 Maps of divisions, sub-divisions, and cities, prepared expressly for this work, and given in connection with the text which they illustrate.

It gives valuable statistics of the different countries up to the present time, not elsewhere to be found.

It contains the last Census of the United States, attached separately to the Geography and History of Each State.

The whole matter is arranged in a convenient and systematic form, for easy reference, the headings of the different subjects being in large type, so as to immediately attract the eye.

It contains a Geographical Description of every country on the globe.

It gives a Historical Outline of every country, Ancient as well as Modern. It contains an Outline of the Ancient Geography of every country, illustrated by full Ancient Maps.

When the mind is filled with a geographical [cut away]tion of a country, a curiosity to know its histo[cut away]riably arises; and under the excitement the latter[cut away] with vivid interest. The impression is therefore [cut away] and likely to be durable; the history serving, b[cut away] associations, to rivet the geography more firmly [cut away] memory. When reading the geographical acc[cut away] Mesopotamia, for instance, to learn in the same [cut away]tion that this is the country where the descen[cut away] Noah dwelt—that here was the Tower of Ba[cut away] the confusion of Tongues—that here was the [cut away] Babylon, founded by Nimrod, embellished by Se[cut away] perfected by Nebuchadnezzar, and conquered b[cut away]ander, will certainly add an interest to the subj[cut away] tend to impress the facts permanently upon th[cut away] We are never satisfied with learning what a co[cut away] without knowing how it became what it is; w[cut away] look upon a scene but the inquiry arises, "What ha[cut away]pired there?"

It is believed that no work has ever before co[cut away] these advantages of numerous maps in immediate [cut away] with the description of countries to which they [cut away] with the union of History and Geography—and [cut away] topics systematically and conspicuously arranged [cut away]venient reference.

In the back part is a copious Index, containing [cut away] Geographical and Historical Names in the wor[cut away] the pages upon which they are respectively tre[cut away] placed directly opposite, and the names divided [cut away]cented, so as to form a systematic and accurat[cut away]graphical and Historical Pronouncing Dictionary.

It is, unquestionably, one of the most valuable [cut away] for the library that has ever been issued. It has r[cut away] the highest encomiums of scientific men in Eur[cut away] America, as well as the most flattering notices of the [cut away]


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———

LIST OF MAPS.

1. WESTERN HEMISPHERE (small) 11
2. EASTERN HEMISPHERE (do.) 12
3. WESTERN HEMISPHERE 21
4. EASTERN HEMISPHERE 22
5. NORTH AMERICA 24
6. UNITED STATES (small) 26
7. UNITED STATES 28, 29
8. NEW ENGLAND 34
9. STATE OF MAINE 36
10. " NEW HAMPSHIRE 38
11. " VERMONT 40
12. " MASSACHUSETTS 42
13. CITY OF BOSTON 44
14. STATE OF RHODE ISLAND 46
15. " CONNECTICUT 48
16. MIDDLE STATES 50
17. STATE OF NEW YORK 52
18. CITY OF NEW YORK 54
19. HUDSON RIVER 55
20. STATE OF NEW JERSEY 56
21. " PENNSYLVANIA 58
22. CITY OF PHILADELPHIA 60
23. STATES OF MARYLAND AND DELWARE 61
24. CITY OF BALTIMORE 63
25. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 64
26. SOUTHERN STATES 66
27. STATE OF VIRGINIA 68
28. STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 73
29. " SOUTH CAROLINA 75
30. " FLORIDA 78
31. STATES OF GEORGIA AND ALABAMA 80
32. " MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA 84
33. CITY OF NEW ORLEANS 87
34. STATE OF TEXAS 91
35. WESTERN STATES 94
36. STATE OF ARKANSAS 97
37. " MISSOURI 99
38. " TENNESSEE 101
39. " KENTUCKY 103
40. " OHIO 106
41. STATES OF INDIANA AND ILLINOIS 109
42. STATE OF MICHIGAN 114
43. " WISCONSIN 118
44. " IOWA 120
45. TERRITORIES IN THE VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI 122
46. OREGON AND CALIFORNIA 129
47. CITY OF SAN FRANCISCO 133
48. POLAR REGIONS 138
49. NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA, &c. 143
50. CITY OF MONTREAL 144
51. MEXICO, GUATIMALA, AND THE WEST INDIES 146
52. CENTRAL AMERICA 150
53. SOUTH AMERICA 158
54. ATLANTIC OCEAN 175
55. EUROPE 176
56. THE WORLD AS KNOWN TO THE ANCIENTS 181
57. BRITISH ISLES 186
58. FRANCE 199
59. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 204
60. ITALY 208
61. ANCIENT ITALY 209
62. ROMAN EMPIRE 212
63. MEDITERRANEAN SEA 213
64. MODERN GREECE 214
65. ANCIENT GREECE 215
66. CENTRAL EUROPE 220
67. SWITZERLAND 226
68. NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK 231
69. AFRICA 234
70. ANCIENT AFRICA 236
71. EGYPT 238
72. ASIA 242
73. TURKEY IN ASIA 246
74. ASIA MINOR 247
75. ASIA AS KNOWN TO THE ANCIENTS 250
76. PERSIA, ARABIA, AFGHANISTAN, AND BELOOCHISTAN 252
77. INDIA 258
78. CHINA 263
79. PACIFIC OCEAN 266


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[FIGURE: Illustration of ships and a stag in front of a mountainous backdrop]

[cut away]ANCIENT AND MODERN

BY S. G. GOODRICH.

NEW YORK:
PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON AND COMPANY,
172 WILLIAM, COR. BEEKMAN ST.
1855.


[FIGURE: A stagecoach being pulled by horses. ]


[FIGURE: A White-appearing man stands in front of a globe that prominently displays "N America" on its surface. He is surrounded by images representing a geographical and historical View of the World, both Ancient and Modern. Specifically, he stands in front of a modern American capitol building and an Asian pagoda. People of other ethnicities and races sit and stand near him. To his left, men who appear to be of Middle-Eastern wear turbans and gesture towards the sea. A man who appears to be Russian sits on a horse while wearing a cossack hat. A man who appears to be Asian wears traditional garb and white face paint. To his right are people who appear to be African and Native American, brandishing various weapons.]


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[FIGURE: An index that provides a guide to the pronunciation of proper names and corresponding page numbers.]


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272 INDEX AND PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES.



[FIGURE: A continuation of the index that provides a guide to the pronunciation of proper names and corresponding page numbers.]


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GENERAL VIEWS OF THE EARTH. 269

Lesson CXXXII... General Views of the Earth

1. Astronomy—or the science of the heavenly bodies, presents three classes of objects to our contemplation. First, the FIXED STARS, which are supposed to be suns, around which troops of planets revolve. About two thousand of these are visible to the naked eye; but it is calculated that 100,000,000 can be seen by good telescopes. Their distance from us is so great, that although many of them are doubtless much larger than the sun, yet they appear like mere shining points, even through fine telescopes. It is estimated that the nearest of these stars must be 200,000,000 miles from the earth. It is calculated that the number of these orbs is entirely beyond human conception, as the "Milky Way" is supposed to consist of myriads of suns, millions of miles apart, in the boundless fields of space. Second, NEBULÆ which consist of patches of faint light, of various forms, seen through telescopes, in different parts of the heavens. These have given rise to many speculations, some supposing them to be unorganized matter, or fire-dust, gradually being formed into worlds, or perhaps remaining stationary. Others regard them as fixed stars, at a distance so inconceivable that no telescope can separate them. Third, the SOLAR SYSTEM, which consists of the sun, with several planets revolving around it, of which our earth is one. The diameter of the sun is 880,000 miles; its circumference, 2,764,000 miles. Its surface contains 12,850 times the area of the globe we inhabit. Some of the planets are nearer than our earth to the sun, and some are more distant. Some are smaller, and some are larger than the earth. They all revolve around the sun, and all turn upon their own axes. The distance of the earth from the sun is 95,000,000 miles. Some of the planets are visible, and some are invisible, to the naked eye. Jupiter, the largest of the planets, is 495,080,000 miles from the sun, and it is always at least 600,000,000 miles from the earth. It is 1400 times larger than the earth. Saturn is nearly twice as far from the earth as Jupiter. It is surrounded by two immense rings, one within the other. The diameter of the outer ring is 179,000 miles and it is 7200 miles broad. The interior ring is 20,000 miles broad. These rings revolve swiftly around the body of the planet. Saturn has also seven moons or satellites. Comets are bodies seeming to be of a gaseous nature, generally appearing in the heavens with long luminous trains behind them. About 1400 of these eccentric luminaries have been observed. They are seen to revolve around the sun in very different orbits; usually coming near to that orb, and then [illegible]ooting off to an [illegible]mmense distance. Some return after a few years: others are hundreds of years in performing their stupendous revolutions.



[FIGURE: Illustration showing the layers of the Earth and atmosphere.]

2. Geology regards the structure of the earth, and the means by which it has been made to assume its present form. The general theory is, that the sun was once the nucleus or center of a nebulous mass, revolving on its axis; that this became condensed, and the planets wore successively thrown off from this central body. This theory considers the earth to have been first in a gaseous state, similar to the comets. By degrees, its heat was dispersed and radiated into space; in consequence of which, the particles became condensed, yet still in a state of fusion. The process of cooling went on, until the external crust of the globe became hardened into the solid materials of which we see it now composed, yet leaving the central mass in a state of incandescence. At first, in the process of cooling, the crust of the globe was perhaps broken and torn; thus presenting the rugged aspect which the telescope now unfolds to view in the moon. The pent-up fires within would seek vent, the volcanoes would disgorge their contents, and the earthquakes would shake and dislocate the land and the sea. The rain and the tempest now began their work. Particles of earth were disengaged from the mountains, and borne by the floods to the valleys, and a soil was thus formed for vegetation. After many changes, extending through millions of years, that sublime revolution which established the present arrangement of oceans and continents, and the present races of animal and vegetable life, as described in the opening books of the Bible, was effected. We have not space to follow out, in detail, the progress of this wonderful history It must be sufficient to state that we now find the earth consisting of an exterior crust, composed of layers of rock and soil of different kinds, probably inclosing a mass of melted matter in the center. These layers or strata are thrown one upon another, in almost every possible position. Some of them are horizontal, others vertical, and others inclined at various angles. Those beds or strata which are found at the greatest depths to which man has been able to penetrate, are called primary, and are supposed to have been formed first. Those strata which are found lying upon primary rocks, and contain the remains of animals and vegetables, are supposed to have been formed at a subsequent period, and are called secondary. Those beds usually found reposing upon secondary strata, composed of fragments of both primary and secondary rocks, are called tertiary, or alluvial formations, and are supposed to bee of more recent origin than the two latter classes. The annexed engraving gives a view of a section of the earth, though it must be borne in mind that the strata are here exaggerated, so as to show more distinctly the forms into which they are cast.

3. Form and Surface of the Earth.—The form, dimensions, and motions of the earth are given at pages 9 and 10; its distribution into land and water, with the extent of oceans and continents, and the population of the globe, at page 16. It may be remarked, in general, that the natural history of the earth, astronomical, geological, and geographical, displays a Beneficent and Intelligent Author, presiding over every step of its progress, from the beginning to the end.

4. Physical Geography.—Land Surface of the Globe.—CONTINENTS. We have shown the division of the land surface of the globe into continents, &c., at pages 18 and 20. MOUNTAINS, in their exterior forms, exhibit varieties which strike the most inattentive observer. Their utility is very great. They attract the clouds and vapors, which become condensed by cold, and fall in the shape of snow and rain, thus giving birth to innumerable streams which descend and spread fertility and beauty over the surface of the earth. The longest range of mountains in the world is the American range, 9000 miles long. The longest range in Asia is the Altaian range, 5000 miles. The longest ranges in Africa are the Mountains of the Moon, 2000, and the Atlas range, 1500 miles. The longest range in Europe is the Ural, 1500. The Dofrafield range is 1000 miles; the Carpathian, 500; the Alleghany, or Apalachian, 900; the Green Mountains, 350; the Alps and Apennines, 700; the Pyrenees, 200. The hights of the principal mountains will be found under the Grand Divisions. VOLCANOES.—The number of volcanoes that have been discovered amounts to several hundred. Some of these are extinguished, others are in constant activity, and others still are periodically inflamed. The most celebrated volcanoes in the world are Etna, Hecla , Cotopaxi, and Vesuvius. EARTHQUAKES are supposed to be intimately connected with volcanoes, and usually take place in volcanic countries. There have been frequent earthquakes near the borders of the Mediterranean Sea, and around the Gulf of Mexico. ISLANDS.—There are numerous islands scattered throughout the oceans, the largest of which, in round numbers, are as follows:

[FIGURE: This table lists the largest islands in the world and their surface areas in square miles. The islands include: Australia, Greenland, Borneo, New Guinea, Madagascar, Sumatra, Great Britain, Cuba, Iceland, and Long Island.]

VALLEYS are formed by the separation of chains of mountains or hills. Those which lie between ranges of high mountains are generally narrow. Valleys collect the waters which descend from the mountains, and pour them into the rivers. There are some valleys situated in elevated regions, having rivers and lakes with no outlets. Such is the valley which surrounds Lake Titicaca, in South America. Central Asia abounds in these valleys. PLAINS are of two kinds, high and low. Those of Mexico, Peru, and Central Asia are of the former kind, and are generally


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☟ Products of different countries

270 GENERAL VIEWS OF THE EARTH.

surrounded by a bulwark of mountains, which supports them. The plains of Mexico are from 6 to 8000 feet high; those of Quito are 12,000. Some of those in Chinese Tartary are probably as elevated. The low plains consist, generally, of sand, gravel, and shells. Such are those along the eastern part of our Southern States, on the north of the Caspian Sea, and on the south of the Baltic; the Delta of Egypt, the Valley of the Amazon. DESERTS.—The most remarkable of these are Sahara, Cobi, and Atacama. There are extensive deserts also In Beloochistan, Persia, Siberia, and Arabia. CAVERNS.—There are numerous caverns or fissures in the earth, particularly in calcareous regions. Most of these seem to owe their formation either to the retiring or sinking of the earth. Some of them are of prodigious extent. The depth of that near Castleton, in England, has not been ascertained, though sounded by a line of 9600 feet. Near Frederickshall, in Norway, there is a hole, into which, if stones are thrown, they appear to be two minutes before they reach the bottom; from which it is concluded that the depth is up ward of 11,000 feet. The most curious caverns are those which present crystals suspended from the roof, or lying on the ground, assuming various fantastic forms, and often presenting the images of animals and vegetables. The Grotto of Antiparos, the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, &c., are of this kind. When lighted up by torches, they present scenes of inconceivable splendor.

5. Water Surface of the Globe.—Oceans.—The Atlantic Ocean is noticed at page 175, and the Pacific at 266. The green tint of the ocean is supposed to be given by marine vegetables, with which the bottom of the deep is generally covered. The blue color of the ocean is but the reflection of the sky. The sparkling of the ocean in the night—which is often a most beautiful phenomenon—is caused by myriads of small sea-animals, diffused in the water, which emit a phosphoric light. The currents of the ocean, which are mainly from east to west, though often changed by the shape of the land by which they pass, are caused partly by the rotary motion of the earth, which leaves the fluid behind, near the equator, creating a movement contrary to that of the earth—i. e., from east to west; and partly also by evaporation of the water in the equatorial regions, and the supply which rushes in from the two poles. Eddies, Whirlpools, &c., are generally formed by rocks above or beneath the surface. The prevailing winds of the ocean are caused by the action of the sun, rarifying the air near the equator, and sending it upward, while the cold air rushes in from the north and south to fill its place. The currents of air, thus set in motion, are modified by the rotation of the earth, and various other causes. There is a considerable analogy between the origin of the winds and currents of the ocean, and doubtless these both act and react on each other. The saline property of the sea is owing to the quantity of salt diffused throughout the mineral masses of the earth. Water-spouts are caused by violent whirlwinds, which force up masses of the ocean, and whirl them about with violent agitation. They often prove fatal to ships at sea. TIDES.—Every twelve hours, the waters of the sea rise and fall along the shores, the average being from ten to twelve feet. Thus the tide ebbs and flows, throughout all oceans and most seas, twice in twenty-four hours. This extraordinary phenomenon is caused by the attraction of the moon, which, by the universal law of attraction, lifts the water as it passes over its surface. The attraction causes high tide, and the reaction low tide. SEAS are but parts of the great oceans, to which we attach different names. The following is the extent of some of the most prominent:

[FIGURE: This table lists the names and extent of some of the seas including" Chinese, Mediterranean, Caribbean, Okotsk, Black, Red, Baltic, and Irish.]

RIVERS have their origin in high grounds, and are caused by rains, the melting of snows, glaciers, &c. They are of the greatest service in scattering fertility along their borders, and furnishing the means of internal navigation to the countries through which they pass. Most of the great cities of the earth are situated upon rivers; and the thickest population is usually found in valleys, along their banks. The principal rivers will be found under the Grand Divisions of the Earth. The following table exhibits the largest river of each quarter of the globe:

[FIGURE: This table lists the longest rivers of each continent and their lengths including: the Mississippi, Amazon, Volga, Niger, and Yenesei rivers.]

CATARACTS.—Rivers, in their descent, often form cataracts or cascades, which are among the most beautiful objects in nature. The Cataract of Niagara exceeds all others in the quantity of water precipitated over its rocks; but there are many whose fall is much greater. The following is a list of some of the most famous:

[FIGURE: This table lists the most famous waterfalls in the world and includes their location and the length of the falls. The cataracts include: Favarnie, Fugloe, Staubbach, Tequendama, Montmorency, Cauterskill, Niagara, Shauffhausen, Cahoes, Tivoli, and St. Anthony.]

SPRINGS.—These are small reservoirs of water in the earth, which overflow, and are conducted by channels to some opening. Mineral springs are those which are impregnated with various substances, from the soil over which they flow. Many of them are highly medicinal. Among the most celebrated are those of Saratoga, in New York; the White Sulphur, in Virginia; those of Bristol, Bath, Tunbridge, and Cheltenham, In England; Spa, in Belgium; Carlsbad, in Germany, &c. Thermal springs are those which are heated, probably by some connection with volcanic materials. These are numerous in many countries; but the most celebrated are the Geysers, in Iceland.

6. The Three Kingdoms of Nature.—MINERALS.—The unorganized portion of the earth belongs to the Mineral Kingdom. This furnishes sustenance to vegetables, and vegetables are the chief nutriment of animals. Among the mineral treasures of the earth, coal is the most important. Next to that are the various metals, iron, lead, tin, copper, zinc, silver, and gold, all of which contribute to human civilization. VEGETABLES—The Empire of Vegetation embraces the whole globe, from pole to pole, and from the summit of mountains, where the lichen creeps over the hardest rocks, to the bottom of the ocean, where floating fields of plants rise unseen. Cold and heat, light and shade, fertile lands and pathless deserts—every place, every temperature, has its own kind of vegetation, which thrives and prospers there. There are plants which even ramify upon the dark vaults of mines, and upon the walls of the deepest caverns. Among the most important vegetables are grains, which furnish bread; cotton, which furnishes clothing; sugar, tea, coffee, and spices, which supply us with luxuries. Ships, as well as a large part of our houses and furniture, are built of vegetable materials. Directly or indirectly, all animal life depends upon vegetable products. ANIMALS.—The Animal Kingdom presents a vast and varied field. Every department of nature—the earth, air, and sea—is full of animated beings; some of them seeming nearly allied to vegetables and minerals. From these we may ascend in the scale, through an almost infinite series of existences, up to Man, who constitutes the highest in the animal kingdom. MAN.—The various original races or mankind may be reduced to five original races or types. The first is called the European race, and occupies Western Asia, Eastern and Northern Africa, Hindostan, and Europe, and embraces the white inhabitants of America. This race is sometimes called the Caucasian, it being imagined that it originated near the mountains of Caucasus. The principal nations embraced in this class are the Europeans and their American descendants, the Arabs, Moors, Turks, Hindoos, and Abyssinians. The second variety is the Tartar, or Mongolian, and includes all the nations in Asia east of the Ganges, excepting Malacca. It embraces, also, the Laplanders and Finns, in Europe, and the Esquimaux, from Behring's Straits to Greenland, in America. The third, or American variety, consists of the aborigines of the western continent. The fourth race is the Malay, comprehending the inhabitants of the peninsula of Malacca, and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of New Holland, New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Van Dieman's Land. The fifth race is the Negro, which is spread over all Western and Southern Africa. It is found also upon the coasts of Madagascar, and occupies New Holland, Van Dieman's Land, New Caledonia, and New Guinea. Of these five races, the Caucasian deserves to be considered the first. Not only is the countenance more beautiful, but the intellectual and moral endowments of this race are of a higher character. Whenever they have met with the other races, they have ultimately prevailed. They have excelled all others in literature and the arts, and seem to have given birth to most of the valuable institutions of human society.

7. Political Geography.—GOVERNMENT.—By far the larger part of the governments in the world are monarchical, and more or less despotic. In Africa and Asia, nearly all the governments are despotisms. In Europe, there are a few republics. The other governments are monarchical, though many are limited by constitutions. They are now administered more mildly than in former times, and the influence of the people is every where becoming more and more felt and acknowledged. RELIGION.—The following is an estimate of the portions of the earth devoted to the several leading religious creeds of mankind:

[FIGURE: This table lists the religions of the world and the estimated number of people in each. The religions include: Pagans, Christians (and subdivisions of Christians), Mohammedans, and Jews.]

CITIES.—We have given a view of the principal cities of the world under the Five Grand Divisions. The following is a list of ten of the most celebrated:

[FIGURE: This table lists the names and populations of ten of the most celebrated cities. These cities include: London, Pekin, Jedo, Constantinople, Paris, Calcutta, Surat, Vienna, Cairo, and New York.]

AGRICULTURE.—This is the chief source whence the food and clothing of man are derived. Bread, meat, potatoes, fruits, for food, and flax, silk, wool, and cotton, for clothing, are all products of agriculture. It is supposed that the annual value of the agricultural products of the United States is about twelve hundred millions of dollars (see page 137). It is estimated that in the world there are:

[FIGURE: This table lists the estimated numbers of Human Beings, Domestic Sheep, Domestic Cattle, Domestic Swine, Domestic Horses, Asses, and Mules, and Domestic Goats in the world. ]

If we consider that each day these are to be fed, chiefly by the agricultural industry of man, we shall have some faint conception of its extent and importance. MANUFACTURES.—It is supposed that the annual product of manufactures in the United States is nearly as great as that of agriculture. Fifty millions of nails are made and used every day, in the United States. A single cotton factory will spin a thread long enough to reach round the world, at the equator, in three hours. One hundred thousand pieces of calico, of thirty yards each, are produced every week in the United States. The cotton manufactures of Great Britain are of the annual value of one hundred and thirty millions of dollars, and the woolen manufactures two-thirds as much. These facts will give some imperfect idea of the amazing extent of this branch of human industry. RAILROADS AND CANALS.—Railroads, which have not existed for more than twenty-five years, are rapidly increasing in the United States, and in Europe. In other parts of the world, they are hardly begun (see pages 136 and 137: also articles England, Holland, &c.) COMMERCE is that process by which mankind exchange their surplus products for others which they need (see page 137). The following table gives a list of some of the exports or various countries:

  • AFRICA—Gold, ivory, gums, hides, ostrich feathers, leather, fruits, &c.
  • ARABIA—Coffee, aloes, myrrh, frankincense, gum-Arabic
  • BELGIUM—Grain, flax, hops, woolens, linens, laces, various manufactures.
  • BRITISH PROVINCES—Flour, furs, lumber, fish.
  • CHINA—Tea, silks, nankeens, porcelain, articles of ivory and pearl.
  • DENMARK—Grain, horses, cattle, beef, pork, butter, and cheese.
  • FRANCE—Silks, woolens, linens, cottons, wine, brandy, porcelain, toys.
  • GERMANY—Linens, grain, various manufactures of silver, copper, &c.
  • GREAT BRITAIN—Woolens, cottons, linens, hardware, porcelain, &c.
  • GREENLAND—Whale oil, whalebone, seal-skins.
  • GUATIMALA—Logwood, mahogany, Indigo, cocoa.
  • HINDOSTAN—Cottons, silks, rice, sugar, coffee, opium, indigo.
  • HOLLAND—Fine linens, woolens, butter, cheese, various manufactures.
  • ITALY—Silks, wines, grain, oil, fruits.
  • IRELAND—Linen, beef, butter, tallow, hides, potatoes, barley, &c.
  • JAPAN—Silk and cotton goods, Japan ware, porcelain.
  • MEXICO—Gold, silver, logwood, cochineal, fruits.
  • MADEIRA AND THE CANARIES—Wine, fruits.
  • NEWFOUNDLAND—Codfish, seal-skins, seal-oil.
  • PERSIA—Carpets, shawls, wine, silk, cotton, rice, rhubarb, guns, swords. &c.
  • PERU—Silver, gold, Peruvian bark, mercury, sugar, cotton, fruits.
  • RUSSIA—Hemp, iron, linen, grain, timber, furs, tallow, platina.
  • SOUTH AMERICA—Sugar, cotton, tobacco, gold, diamonds, silver, copper, dye woods, indigo, cocoa.
  • SPAIN AND PORTUGAL—Silks, wool, wine, oil, fruits, salt, &c.
  • SWEDEN AND NORWAY—Iron, steel, copper, timber, fish.
  • TURKEY—Grain, fruits, cotton, oil, wine, carpets, muslins, swords.
  • WEST INDIES—Sugar, rum, molasses, coffee, spice, cotton, indigo, fruits.


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DISCOVERIES AND IMPROVEMENTS

IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCES.

———

B.C.
1 Astronomical observations first made in Babylon, since which time astronomers h[illegible] 2234
2 Lyre invented [illegible] 2004
3 Sculpture [illegible] 1900
4 Agriculture, by Triptolemus. [illegible] 1600
5 Chariots of war. [illegible] 1500
6 Alphabetic letters introduced into Europe.—————————— [illegible]—————————— 1500
7 The first ship seen in Greece, arrived at Rhodes from Egypt. [illegible] 1485
8 Iron discovered in Greece, by the burning of Mount Ida. [illegible] 1406
9 Seaman's compass invented in China. [illegible] 1120
10 Gold and silver money first coined by Phidon, king of Argos. [illegible] 894
11 Parchment invented by Attalus, king of Pergamus. [illegible] 887
12 Weights and measures instituted. [illegible] 869
13 First eclipse observed.—————————— [illegible]—————————— 721
14 Ionic order used in building. [illegible] 650
15 Maps and globes invented by Anaximander.———————— [illegible]—————————— 600
16 Sun-dials invented. [illegible] 558
17 Signs of the Zodiac invented by Anaximander. [illegible] 547
18 Corinthian order of architecture. [illegible] 540
19 First public library established at Athens.—————————— [illegible]—————————— 526
20 Silk brought from Persia to Greece. [illegible] 325
21 The art of painting brought from Etruria to Rome, by Quintus Pictor [illegible] 291
22 Solar quadrants introduced. [illegible] 290
23 Mirrors in silver invented by Praxiteles. [illegible] 288
24 Silver money first coined at Rome. [illegible] 269
25 Hour-glass invented in Alexandria. [illegible] 240
26 Burning mirrors invented by Archimedes. [illegible] 212
27 First fabricating of glass. [illegible] 200
28 Brass invented. [illegible] 146
29 Paper invented in China.—————————— [illegible]—————————— 105
30 Rhetoric first taught in Rome. [illegible] 87
31 Blister-plasters invented. [illegible] 60
32 Julian year regulated by Cæsar. [illegible] 45
33 Apple trees brought from Syria and Africa into Italy. [illegible] 9
34 Vulgate edition of the Bible ?discovered.? [illegible] 218
35 Porcelain invented in China. [illegible] 274
36 Water-mills invented by Belisarius. [illegible] 555
37 Sugar first mentioned by Paul Eginetta, a physician. [illegible] 625
38 Stone buildings introduced into England, by Bennet, a monk. [illegible] 670
39 Couriers, or posts, invented by Charlemagne. [illegible] 808
40 Arabic figures invented.—————————— [illegible]—————————— 813
41 Lanterns invented by king Alfred. [illegible] 890
42 High towers first erected on churches. [illegible] 1000
43 Musical notes invented by Guy and Aretin. [illegible] 1021
44 Heraldry originated. [illegible] 1100
45 Distillation first practised. [illegible] 1150
46 Glass windows first used in England.—————————— [illegible]—————————— 1180
47 Chimneys built in England [illegible] 1236
48 Leaden pipes for conveying water, invented. [illegible] 1252


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46 MEMORIA TECHNICA.

49 Magic lanterns invented by Roger Bacon. Tiny boys, 1290
50 Tallow candles first used. Tiny boys, 1290
51 Fulminating powder invented by Roger Bacon. Tiny boys, 1290
52 Spectacles invented by Spina. Tin pipe, 1299
53 Windmills invented. Tin pipe, 1299
54 Alum discovered in Syria. Dumb asses, 1300
55 Paper made of linen. Dumb son, 1302
56 Woollen cloths first made in England. Dum mood, 1331
57 Painting in oil colors. Tortoise, 1410
58 Muskets used in England. Throned, 1421
59 Pumps invented. Door nail, 1425
60 Wood-cuts invented. Dear chase, 1460
61 Almanacs first published in Buda. Dear chase, 1460
62 Printing introduced into England by Caxton.—————————— Door case, 1470
63 Watches invented at Nuremberg. Dark key, 1477
64 Tobacco discovered in St. Domingo. Tar patch, 1496
65 Shillings first coined in England. Heedlessly, 1505
66 Stops in literature introduced.—————————— Idleness, 1520
67 Spinning-wheel invented at Brunswick Dull moss, 1530
68 Pins invented. Delirium, 1543
69 Needles first made in England by an Indian. Tall roll, 1545
70 Sextant invented by Tycho Brahe. Tall lace, 1550
71 Coaches first used in England.—————————— Tall face, 1580
72 Telescopes invented by Jansen. Tall piece, 1590
73 Thermometers invented by Drehel. Toyishness, 1620
74 Barometer invented by Torricelli, an Italian. Dutch notch, 1626
75 Regular posts established in London. Dutch mail, 1635
76 Coffee brought to England.—————————— Dashy ride, 1641
77 Air-pumps invented. Dashy lace 1650
78 Air-guns invented by Guter. Dutch leach 1656
79 Pendulums for clocks invented. Dutch latch, 1656
80 Spring pocket watches invented by Dr. Hook. Dutch leave, 1658
81 Engines to extinguish fires. Dutch chime, 1663
82 Bayonets invented at Bayonne. Dutch case, 1670
83 Telegraphs invented. Whitish fog, 1687
84 Georgium Sidus discovered by Herschell. Dog fight, 1781
85 Stereotype printing invented by Mr. Ged, Scotland. Dog fly, 1785
86 Sunday schools established in Yorkshire. Talk of a fop, 1789
87 Galvanism, 1767,—its extraordinary effects on animals discovered by Mrs. Galvani. Talk of a fop, 1789
88 Planet Ceres discovered by Piazzi. Tough sight, 1801
89 Pallas discovered by Olbers. Tough sight, 1801
90 Life boats invented. Tough sign, 1802
91 Planet Juno discovered by Harding. Tough seer, 1804
92 Vesta discovered by Olbers. Tough sack, 1807
93 Steam first used to propel boats, by Fulton, in America.—————————— ❊Heavy scow, 1807
94 Engraving on steel first invented by Perkins, an American.—————————— Tough tough, 1818
95 Gas first used for lighting streets in the U.S., at Baltimore. Tough night, 1821
96 Electro-magnetic Telegraph invented by Morse, America.—————————— Defy money, 1832
97 Egyptian hieroglyphics first discovered by Champollion.—————————— Half known, 1822
98 Mesmerism, or animal magnetism, discovered by Mesmer. Thick fife, 1788
99 Macadamizing streets commenced in London by McAdam. Definer, 1824
100 Daguereotype impressions first taken by Daguerre, in France. Tough map, 1839


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Comets


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IS THE SUN INHABITED?—If (says Arago) this question were simply proposed to me, Is the sun inhabited? I should reply that I know nothing about the matter. But let any one ask of me if the sun can be inhabited by beings organized in a manner analogous to those which people our globe, and I hesitate not to reply in the affirmative. The existence in the sun of a central obscure nucleus, enveloped in an opaque atmosphere far beyond which the luminous atmosphere exists is by no means opposed, in effect, to such a conception.

Sir William Herschel thought the sun to be inhabited. According to him, if the depth of the solar atmosphere in which the luminous chemical action operates should amount to a million of leagues, it is not necessary that the brightness at each point should surpass that of an ordinary aurora borealis. In any case, the arguments upon which the great astronomer relies, in order to prove that the solar nucleus may not be very hot, notwithstanding the incandescence of the atmosphere, are neither the only, nor the best that might be adduced. The direct observation, made by Father Secchi, of the depression of temperature which the points of the solar disc experience wherein the spots appear, is in this respect more important than any reasoning whatever.

"Dr. Elliot maintained, as early as the year 1787, that the light of the sun arose from what he called a dense and universal twilight. He further believed, with certain ancient philosophers, that the sun might be inhabited. When the Doctor was brought before the Old Bailey for having occasioned the death of Miss Boydell, his friends, Dr. Simmons among others, maintained that he was mad, and thought that they could prove it abundantly by showing the writings wherein the opinions which we have just cited were found developed. The conceptions of a madman are in the present day generally adopted."—Arago's Popular Astronomy, Vol. 1, Book 14 Chap.29.

Sir John Herschel concludes that the sun is a planet abundantly stored with inhabitants, his inference being drawn from the following arguments:

On the tops of mountains of a sufficient height, at an altitude where clouds can very seldom reach to shelter them from the direct rays of the sun, we always find regions of ice and snow. Now, if the solar rays themselves conveyed all the heat we find o[illegible]his globe, it aught to be hottest where their course is least interrupted. Again, our aeronauts all confirm the coldness of the upper regions of the atmosphere. Since, therefore, even on our earth, the heat of any situation depends upon the aptness of the medium to yield to the impression of the solar rays, we have only to admit that, on the sun itself, the elastic fluids composing its atmosphere, and the matter on its surface, are of such a nature as not to be capable of any excessive affection from its own rays. Indeed, this seems to be proved by the copious emission of them; for if the elastic fluids of the atmosphere, or the matter contained on the surface of the sun were of such a nature as to admit of an easy chemical combination with its rays, their emission would be much impeded. Another well-known fact is, that the solar focus of the largest lens thrown into the air will occasion no sensible heat in the place where it has been kept for a considerable time, although its power of exciting combustion, when proper bodies are exposed, should be sufficient to fuse the most refractory substances.

———

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Down to the year 1831 the orbits of 137 comets were observed; thirty of these lie within the orbit of Mercury.

The question arises, is there a possibility of collision between one of these eccentric bodies and our earth? A calculation of probabilities shows one chance in 281,000,000 chances—small danger! Another question follows: In case of collision would disastrous consequences to our terrestrial planet ensue?

There is satisfactory evidence that the most of these bodies are gaseous, and what danger is to be apprehended from mere aggregations of vapor one may satisfy himself by noting the effects of a collision between a mass of clouds and the mountain top toward which they are attracted. Had the comet of 1770, which passed twice through the system of Jupiter, been one fiftieth of one of his satellites in mass, it would have sensibly affected that system; but instead of deranging the planes of motion or the periods of revolution of any of Jupiter's moons, itself was forced into a new path, as a consequence of its intrusion into Jupiter's family circle. This comet passed nearer the earth than has any other; but not the least disturbance was caused by it. Had its mass been one five thousandth part of the earth, it would have appreciably altered the length of our year. But the action of the earth on the comet increased the time of its revolution by two days. The mass of solid matter possessed by comets must be very small; it is doubted that they have any solid matter. Sir John Herschel saw a group of stars of the sixteenth magnitude in the very center of Biela's comet, in 1832. The nucleus of the comet of 1618 dissolved into several detached parts. Sir John Herschel says: "Whenever powerful telescopes have been turned on them they have not failed to dispel the illusion which attributes solidity to that more condensed part of the head, which to the naked eye appears as a nucleus." Also, Mr. Airy states that "on the physical constitution of comets we have learned nothing, except that they appear to be wholly gaseous."

[illegible]


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THE SCIENTIFIC CONVENTION AT MONTREAL.

———

Commencement of the Session—Distinguished Members—Prayer by the Lord Bishop of Montreal—Committees.

Correspondence of the New York Daily Times.

MONTREAL, Wednesday, August. 12, 1857.

The Eleventh Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of science was opened this morning.


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The Secretary then read the list of papers which had been handed in—only 38 in number—as follows:

  • 1—On the division of the Azoic Rocks of Canada into Huronian and Laurentian. By Sir W. E. LOGAN.
  • 2—The Laws of descent among the Iroquois. 1st—Descent in the Female Line. 2d.—Degrees of Consanguinity. By L.H. MORGAN.
  • 3—On the probable subdivision of the Laurentian Series of the Canadian Rocks By Sir W.E. LOGAN.
  • 4—On the relative duties of the various intrusive Rocks, cutting Laurentian Series in Canada. By Sir W. E. LOGAN.
  • 5—On a Quantitative Assay of Chromium by the Blow-Pipe process. By E. W. HILGARD. [10 min]
  • 6—Notes of the determination of the longitude of Fernandina, Amelia Island, Florida, by many chronometer exchanges from Savannah, Ga. By A. D. BACHE and CHARLEY A. SCHOTT.
  • 7—On Tongued Flexures in the Broad-Top coal. By J P. Lesley. [10 min]
  • 8—The Secular Variation which Tidal action produces on Lunar and Terrestrial motion. By DANIEL VAUGHAN. [10 min]
  • 9—Comparison of the Religious System of the Iroquois with that of the Ancient Persians. By L. H. MORGAN
  • 10—On the Heights of the Tides of the Atlantic Coast of the United States. By A. D. BACHE.
  • 11—On Comparative Sections in Western Kentucky, Western and Eastern Pennsylvania. By J. P. LESLEY. [5 min]
  • 12—The Cause of the Existence of one or more Tails attending Comets. By DANIEL VAUGHAN [10 min]
  • 13—On some Mineral Waters, and on the origin of Magnesian Rocks. By T. STERRY HUNT.
  • 14—General Considerations on the Metamorphoses of Sedimentary Rocks. By T. STERRY HUNT.
  • 15—On the Parrallelism between the Crystalline Rocks of the Laurentian and Silurian formation. By T. STERRY HUNT.
  • 16—On some Intrusive Rocks of the District of Montreal. By T. STERRY HUNT.
  • 17—Notes on a new system of Dressing Metalic Ores by Mechanical means. By Prof. SILLIMAN, Jr, Yale College.
  • 18—The Light of the Suns, Meteors, and Temporary Stars. By DANIEL VAUGHAN. [12 to 15 min.]
  • 19—On the Ethnological Bearings of certain Architectural forms. By J. P. LESLEY. [15 min.]
  • 20—On the word "C[illegible]lt" By J. P. LESLEY [5 min]
  • 21—On the Variety and State of Preservation of the Fossils known as "Sternbergine." By J. W. DAWSON [20 min.]
  • 22—On the Newer Pliocene Fossils of the St. Lawrence Valley. By J. W. DAWSON.
  • 23—On a Universal Language. By HUGO REID.
  • 24—On Parthenogenesis of Animals and Plants. By BERTHOLD SEEMAN.
  • 25—Passages of the Electric Vortices near the longitude of Montreal, between the 12th and 20th of August, 1857. By THOMAS BASSNETT [5 min]
  • 26—On Bank Notes, and the means adopted for prevention of counterfeiting. By B. SILLIMAN, Jr., Yale College.
  • 27—Paper upon certain Ternary Compounds recently discovered. By Prof. A K. EATON, Brooklyn.
  • 28—On a subsidence of the Coast of New Jersey and of some of the adjoining States. Prof. GEO. H. COOK, Rutgers College.
  • 29—On the application of a New Arrangement of Locomotive Boiler, to the Combustion of Coal. Dr. WYNNE.
  • 30—On the Physical conditions determinate of the climate of the United States. by Prof. JOSEPH HENRY.
  • 31—On some Phenomena of Ice. By Prof. JOSEPH HENRY.
  • 32—On the Influence of the Gulf Stream upon the Climate of the Atlantic Coast of the United States. By Dr. WYNNE.
  • 33—On the warped surfaces occurring in Road Excavations and Embankments. By W. M. GILLESPIE.
  • 34—Preliminary Researches on the alleged Influence of Solar Light on the Process of Combustion. By Prof. JOHN LE CONTE, of the South Carolina College.
  • 35—Thoughts on Species. By JAMES D. DANA.
  • 36—Species of Trilobite from Potsdam Sandstone, of Keeseville, N. Y. By JAMES D. DANA.
  • 37—On the Fluctuations of Level in the North American Lakes. By Col. CHARLES WHITTLESEY, Cleveland.
  • 38—On the occurrence of Masses of Native Copper in the mineral veins of Point Reweenaw. By Col. CHARLES WHITTLESEY, Cleveland.
  • 39—On the Origin of Mineral Coal. By Col. CHARL[illegible]WHITTLESEY, Cleveland.

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Lieut. E. B. HUNT next read a paper upon the ideas of Metaphysical and Physical Infinity. He thought that our ideas of infinity and infinitessimal were usually founded upon the distance of visibility, or the distance between our eyes or upon the length of our steps, and so on. That is, the infinitely great is that which is too great for our conception, and the infinitessimal that which is too small for our conception. Infinity, therefore, is relative to the mind of whose cognition it is predicated. It is negative, not positive; defining the limits of our knowledge. There may be orders of intelligence of varying orders, the infinitely great of one being the infinitely small of the second order above.

[illegible]


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Prof. STEPHEN ALEXANDER introduced his paper upon the Special Harmonies in the distances and periods of the planets, by some remarks on the fallacies which arise from expecting too perfect a symmetry in nature. [illegible]

azoic (destitute of organic life)


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Dr. Boynton's Second Lecture.

Dr. Boynton gave the second of his brilliant course of lectures last night, to another large audience, at the Atheneum, every seat being occupied, and the aisles and gallery crowded. He commenced the history of the earth's formation by showing that there was no discrepancy between Genesis and Geology. The earth was at first a melted mass of rock, produced by chemical action and condensation. Wherever there is a combination of different elements heat is produced. This melted mass, suspended in space, and surrounded by a cold atmosphere, began to cool and form an outer solid crust. This crust composed the granite rock, and was crystalized in cooling. When the earth was in this highly heated condition, the water now on its surface was driven off and existed in the form of vapor: hence the vapor would obscure the central mass and "darkness would be upon the face of the deep." As the earth cooled and formed a crust, this vapor condensed and formed the waters of the oceans. All bodies contract by cooling: the crust of the earth by cooling, contracted, forming wrinkles, producing elevations and depressions. This contraction was illustrated by a wand, which being held in both hands and bent like a bow, when one portion was pressed towards the centre an opposite elevation was produced. By this process and the pressure produced by this contraction on melted masses in the interior of the earth, these melted masses must find vent—hence the bursting out of volcanoes, and the elevation of continents and lands.

If we bury a thermometer fifty feet below the surface of the earth, the mercury will remain at the same point the year round, in winter and in summer, showing that the influence of the sun does not reach below that depth. If we carry the thermometer fifty feet lower, the mercury will rise one degree, and will rise in the same ratio for every fifty feet we go down. It can easily be calculate at what depth all known substances will melt. This would not exceed fifty miles. It was Dr. Boynton's own opinion that the crust did not exceed fifteen miles. It will thus be seen that the crust (or solid part) of the earth is exceedingly thin, in proportion to the size of the egg. With a crust so thin, constantly cooling and producing a pressure upon the interior masses, it is not strange that the bed of oceans should be elevated and form dry land, and continents should sink and form the beds of oceans. As to the depth of seas and oceans, in proportion to the general diameter of the earth, it was not more than would be the vapor left by breathing once on a metal globe 80 inches in diameter. Large mountains have been elevated in a single day, and whole cities have been sunk in the same space of time: The side of a volcanic mountain once broke away, and the liquid mass flowed out, forming a river twelve miles wide, which in its course melted down hills six hundred feet high and filling up valleys six hundred feet deep, and spreading over a surface of eleven hundred square miles.

On the Island of Owyhee there is a volcano now in active operation, the crater of which is three miles wide. In illustration of the subject, Dr. Boynton exhibited three beautiful paintings—the first of which was that of a volcano bursting from the water in the Mediterranean; the second was the same volcano with the fires gone out; the last was the great volcano of Owyhee. These were exceedingly beautiful, and elicited hearty applause from all present. The next lecture will be given tomorrow night.


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Dr. Boynton's Sixth Lecture.

Dr. Boynton last night brought before his audience a portion of the geological history of the earth which inaugurated the birth of the Reptilian order. Having traced step by step each epoch in that history, until reaching the carboniferous period, he arrived at the markings by which the reptiles left their footprints in the new sand stone. In describing the differences between the inhabitants of land and sea at that period, by which the several orders exhibited some structural similarity to other orders by which they had been succeeded, the lecturer imparted to his explanations the same felicity of illustration as characterized his prevous elucidations. He showed how the fishes presented some peculiarities of organization superior to the reptiles by which they had been succeeded, and the reptiles some characteristics of formation superior to the fishes, and how the new red sand stone and the coal beds became the repositories respectively of the fossils of both orders, with the markings by which their history had been interpreted.

In presenting the progressive stages in this history of the realms of Nature, long before the earth was fit for the abode of man, the explanations by which the resources of comparative anatomy were brought to aid the description of geological formations and their adaptation from peculiarities of climate, &c., to the life they had to support, Dr. Boynton's familiarity with all the connecting branches of natural science brought to each the illustration reciprocally of the other. The history of the foot prints was made peculiarly interesting as showing from the impressions on the rocks the structure and proportions of the animals which had left the records of their habits and conformation where they may receive the interpretations of the naturalist, supplying to him the signs, in the absence of fossil remains, by which he is enabled to read their history.

The lecturer was particularly successful, we thought, in exposing the errors of Lamarkian theory, that each order of animals formed links in one chain of animated being, connecting the superior with the inferior, and making man the off-shoot of the monkey, by successive steps of development. In condemnation of this theory, the lecturer was properly emphatic as degrading the higher to the level of the lower species. He showed how each order was a separate act of creation, and not associated by any general resemblance or apparent similarity of organization, springing one from the other; while he was no less successful in elucidating the manner by which the Creator left no gap in the work—no blank in the diversified succession of the classes of animated being, but filled each space of creation with the creatures the best adapted to move within their peculiar spheres and occupy their appropriate geological period, drawing a line of obvious demarkation between the cold blooded and the warm-blooded animals.

The next lecture will be given on Saturday evening, which will embrace the history of the warm-blooded animals.


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———

The Great Comet.

LECTURE BY REV. H. MATTISON.

Notwithstanding the rain last evening, three or four hundred ladies and gentlemen assembled in the Union Chapel, corner of Thirty-ninth street and Broadway, to hear the Rev. Mr. Mattison, late a Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, deliver a lecture on the great eomet now visible in the western sky. The proceeds of the lecture were to be devoted to the benefit of the Sabbath school.

Rev. Mr. MATTISON, on taking the stand, said we had been recently honored by a strange celestial luminous body in the western sky—one we never looked upon before and shall never look upon again. This strange body had not received near so much attention as it deserved. The notices of it that had appeared in the newspapers had been necessarily meagre, and, as it seemed to him, very like caricatures. Heavenly bodies were divided into the solar and the siderial systems. The speaker then went on to explain some of the primary principles of astronomy. Comets belonged to the solar system; he could not say that they did not belong to other systems, but they did belong to the solar system in great numbers. They were noted for their lightness or rairty, the immense ellipses of their orbits, and for moving around the sun in a direction opposite to that of the planets, as well as in the same direction. He had examined, during the day, the elements of forty-nine comets, twenty-four of which moved round the sun in an opposite direction to the planets. There were millions of these comets constantly circling round the sun, though they were rarely visible to the naked eye. Comets did not manifest the same appearance every time they returned; they varied so much that it was exceedingly difficult to distinguish them on their return. They frequently split into, sometimes divided, into several pieces, and appeared under entirely different aspects. The comet now visible in the western sky was called the Donati comet, from having been first discovered by Donati, in Italy on the 3d of June last. It was the practice among astronomers to name heavenly bodies after the person who discovered them. This comet was first seen in America on the 29th of June last, by a gentleman in New Jersey. A few days after, Miss Mitchell, of Nantucket, saw it. It had been said that this comet was seen three hundred years ago, but he (the speaker) did not believe it. So far as he had examined the charts, this comet bore the most resemblance to one that was seen 331 years before Christ; that would give it a period of 2,500 years. The substance composing comets was very rare. This comet did slightly affect our atmosphere and weather, but it was so slightly that it could not by any device be ascertained or or appreciated. All comets were much more rare than our atmosphere; they were not self-luminous, but only reflectors of the sun's light. He next attempted to explain the philosophy of the comet's tail. He disagreed with Newton upon the subject. According to his idea comets must be propelled by the force of the rays of the sun striking them; and in describing their orbits the denser part of them was attracted and kept in towards the centre of gravity, around which they were revolving. This comet he calculated moved at a rate of 1,500,000 miles an hour; when first seen it headed toward the East when last seen it will head towards the West, as it moves across our heavens, keeping its head alway[illegible] toward the sun. He did not think it would ever retur[illegible] to the solar system again; it probably moved in a parabolic curve—if so, it could never return; but if it moved i[illegible] an elliptical orbit it might.

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THE DONATI COMET.

———

Its Appearance through a Street Telescope—Sixpence worth of a Sight of the Celestial Stranger—The Cometary System Popularized for the Curious.

According to the calculations of the astronomers, the comet was last evening to have reached its culmunating point, and its tail to have attained its greatest length. The heavy looking cumbrous clouds which almost overspread the sky, and of which there was a strong reserve on the western horizon, were rather unfavorable for astronomical observations generally, and for an examination of the comet in particular. At least so thought the owner of the big telescope which occupies every night the most conspicious station on the eastern side of the Park, and which has reaped quite a pecuniary harvest for that same owner since the comet made its appearance. But fortune after all proved favorable, the clouds began to clear away as the night came on, and by seven o'clock the prospect was as bright as could be desired. There, amid a bright constellation of stars, the most prominent object among them all was the comet, with its tail lengthened out to its greatest extent, and becoming fainter and broader as it reached its extremity, till its dim and uncertain light faded away until it was lost in the darkness. It was, in fact, almost impossible to see the end of it, for there was no distincly defined line by which it could be marked by the eye, or even by the street telescope; but the astronomers doubtless know all about it, as they have fixed its exact length to a nicety.

Notwithstanding the announcement that the comet would have attained its greatest dimensions last evening, there were very few around the big telescope, and those few did not appear to be astronomically inclined. But if the telescope did not draw a large amount of custom, those who paid their sixpences had the full value of their money in the longer observations which they were enabled to enjoy. There were about seven persons altogether assembled around the instrument, and of these three, of whom the writer was one, paid the required amount for a view of the comet and as much of its tail as they could see through the glass.

"What is the price?" we asked, as we were about to take our stand on the small step ladder which places you within reach of the lower end of the telescope.

"Six cents," was the reply, and it was certainly cheap enough.

"Well, can you see the whole comet?"

"No; the glass only takes in the head—you can only see a portion of the tail."

Thus informed, we mounted the little step ladder, and placing our right eye to the glass, saw the nucleus of the comet, which looked like a fragmentary part of the moon, but with its brightness considerably diminished. The nucleus was surrounded with a still paler light, which seemed to the eye a dim reflection thrown out by itself. Only a portion of the tail was visible, and it was a very small portion, but the rest could be seen in instalments by raising the end of the telescope nearest to yourself. The view thus afforded was rather unsatisfactory, and the impression left on the minds of some was that the comet is a humbug so far as a sight through a street telescope is concerned. But it is worth sixpence after all; and if the charges were a quarter it would be a profitable investment. The flood of dim light which streams out from the nucleus and which forms the tail looks brighter than to the naked eye. No part of the comet shines with the brightness of the stars of the first magnitude, nor can it be properly said to have any brilliancy. The light of the nucleus is, as far as we have said, dimmer than that of the moon, but it is of that character—pale and cold. The curve was, perhaps, more distinctly marked than on any night since its first appearance. After all, however, we are decidedly of the opinion that its appearance to the unaided vision is far preferable to the view obtained of it through the telescope. With the naked eye you can take in its whole dimensions, while the glass gives it to you in some seven or eight instalments, of which one takes in the head, the tail making up the sum total. It has been suggested as a rather serious anomaly that although the comet rejoices in a tail, that caudal appendage has been denied to the dog star.

For the interesting scientific details which we possess on the subject of the comet, we are particularly indebted to two of our astronomers—Messrs. Mitchell and Bond.

We are told of its celestial latitude and longitude with precision, its distance from the earth and length of its tail, although some of our journals have, nevertheless, ventured upon statements and exhibited engraved maps which in this part of the globe, are utterly worthless. But the general character of these strange visitors and the opinions which the learned in our own day entertain of them we are left quite in the dark. A condensation of the latest speculations on this subject, for the gratification of the readers of the HERALD, may, therefore, be interesting at this moment.

The constitution of a comet, when entire, consists of the head or nucleus, the coma or envelope rings, and the tail. Some authorities make no distinction between the rings and the coma. The admirable description given us of the present comet by Professor Mitchell confirms this arrangement. He saw a nearly circular nebulous or luminous envelope of a diameter of 18,000 miles—almost nineteen times that of the moon. We can imagine, perhaps, what an overpowering spectacle an illuminated orb of such dimensions at the distance of the moon would present to our astonished eyes; and what the emotions of the inhabitants of the distant planets must be, if inhabited they are, when these terrific visiters blaze closely in their neighborhood. Lexell's comet, so called after a Russian astronomer, who made it his particular study and became its most attentive observer, though it was a discovery of a Frenchman of the name of Messier, was so completely attracted and disturbed when approaching Jupiter as to alter its path and remain for two elliptical revolutions longer in its vicinity than it otherwise would have done. Nor were the inhabitants of our own planet beyond the chance of a similar spectacle, when on the 1st of July, 1770, this comet was only distant 363 semi-diameters of the earth, or about six times the distance of the moon. Encke's comet crosses the terrestial orbit sixty times in a century, and may some day afford the world a terrific though magnificent sight of this description. Of the true nature of cometic bodies many differing opinions are entertained. Sir John Herschel regards them as masses of thin vapor, capable of reflecting solar rays from their internal as well as their external parts. This theory, which was absolutely necessary to explain the visible phenomena, was proved to be correct by the experiments of the astronomer Arago, with the polariscope, during the visit of Halley's comet in 1835. It is a curious fact that the discovery of Malus, called the polarity or polarization of light, has been made available in astronomy to determine whether a heavenly body shines with inherent or with borrowed light. This principle was applied to comets, and it was thus determined by Arago that they shone by borrowed light. And yet this vapor is a matter also, for it revolves in regular orbits, obeying the laws of attraction and of motion like the solid planets themselves. But though having this amount of density it is less than that of a summer cloud, for the latter will obscure the brightest stars while, on the contrary, stars of an inferior magnitude have been distinctly seen through both the nucleus and the tail of comets. Professor Mitchell, of Cincinnati, mentions that he has seen the faintest telescopic stars shining with undiminished brightness through the vast nebulous matter composing the tail of the present comet. Similar observations have also been made personally by Sir John Herschel, Olbers, Streve, Piazzi Bessel, and others. On the 7th of November, 1828, Streve saw a star of only the eleventh magnitude through the comet of Encke; and Sir John Hershell in 1825 saw through the head of a comet a cluster of stars of the sixteenth magnitude. We must, says Babinet, consider a comet as a species of dust, the grains of which are very much separated (très écartés), a material substance placed at the very confines of existence. Un peu moins de matière, says he, et la comète cessarait d'ètre. While comets themselves have thus been affected by the planets, the planets have in no instance been affected by them. All those old theories, then, of the existence of planets being owing to collisions of comets with the sun or the planets of his system, or such as Whiston put forth as those being the cause of the deluge, may be considered as exploded.

It is also well to notice that none of the comets previously observed have exhibited any well defined disc like solid bodies of the same magnitude and appearance, during the whole of their visibility, and the present one does not differ from its predecessors.

The tails of comets are of different forms, an explanation of which cannot yet be satisfactorily given in conformity with any natural laws with which we are acquainted. Sometimes they appear to be long, narrow lines of light, sometimes their widest part is between the nucleus and end, sometimes they resemble peacocks' tails, and one has been seen with six. Their colors vary also from palel vidness to fiery red, and from blue to green. Again, on the other hand, they appear without any tail, particularly such as is called telescopic, and visible to the eye, like that of Biela.

The heat of these wandering orbs is often intense. That of 1843, which has been described in the HERALD of the 1st instant, was computed to have been 47,000 times greater when near the sun, than any which is ever experienced in our torrid zone. It was twenty-four times greater than is necessary to melt crystal, and 2,000 times hotter than red hot iron; on the contrary, when it reached the other side of the solar sphere its temperature was reduced to about four times that of the torrid zone. It is also asserted that the tail, with the exceptions mentioned, is kept opposite the sun as it moves around it, so that the curve described by the end of the tail is immensely greater than that of the comet itself. As, for example, if the tail of the present comet is six millions of miles, the sweep or curve would be, if circular, eighteen millions. These tails are shot out with amazing force and rapidity. The one now visible was but about two or three degrees when it first appeared; it is now more than twenty. That belonging to the comet of 1680 extended itself in two days more than a hundred millions of miles.

The paths of comets are those produced by the lines of the intersection of a plane with the cone, elliptical when the curve returns to itself after having been drawn out in one direction, the parabolic where the carve partakes of the openness of the ellipse and the hyperbola, and the hyperbola, that most curious of all, which, through a curve, never returns to itself, but is protracted through all infinity. It is produced practically by cutting a cone with a plane parallel to the direction of its axis. Every young mathematical student must remember his surprise on being told of the possibility of drawing such a curve, and of there being the asymptotes, or lines of a hyperbola, always approaching and yet never meeting. And yet, this problem is capable of visible demonstration with a common piece of string. Some comets have actually been observed pursuing one of those endless lines, and are never expected to return. What imagination can contemplate the vastness of this idea, or of the system to which we belong and how absurd are those geologist who believe our own world has existed but 6,000 years! "The earth was at first without form and void," and so are these comets not yet arrested in their course after a destiny of years, the number of which defy all human calculation, and cannot be expressed in any amount of numerals to be found in any human arithmetic.

The periods of comets are determined by what are called their elements. These are:—

  • 1. The longitude of their perihelion.
  • 2. The longitude of the ascending nodes or points where the orbit of a planet intersects the ecliptic when going north.
  • 3. The inclination of the plane of its orbit to that of the ecliptic.
  • 4. The eccentricity of the orbit.
  • 5. The length of the semi-major axis of the ellipse.
  • 6. The time of passing the perihelion.
  • 7. Motion direct or retrograde.

So perfect have become our astronomical instruments that these observations can all be accurately made. If the principles on which the astronomers work out their calculations were incorrect, then we should not be able to construct an almanac or an ephemeris, to foretell an eclipse or an occultation, to regulate our clocks or determine the position of a ship at sea, or reach with certainty a wished for port. We can afford to believe these astronomers, then, when they talk to us about comets, and regard observatories with profound interest. Thus it is with perfect confidence we accept the statement of Professor Mitchell, of Cincinnati, when he says that by micrometrical measurement he has ascertained that the distance form the centre of the ring of the present comet to its circumference when he observed it, was nine thousand miles. And here, if our space permitted, we might make some curious explanations of the [illegible] necessary [illegible]ters, distances and motions are computed. The periods of some of the comets, particularly such as have been lately discovered, have been so accurately determined that they reappear with remarkable precision at the expected moment.

One of the peculiarities of the tails of comets is their curvature, such as may be observed in the one now visible, giving it a sabre form, and the curve being towards the direction in which the body is proceeding. It is so in this instance. The comet is proceeding to the west and the curve is opposite and eastward. Their nearness to the sun, or the perihelion distance, varies considerably; their orbits do not partake of the direction or character of the planets, the inclination to the plane of the ecliptic is at all angles, and about half of them of the two hundred whose directions are known, have a retrograde motion—the case with the one now visible.

Those whose periods have been most accurately determined are Halley's, Encke's, Biela's and Faye's. The first was due in 1835, and appeared accordingly. The present one was supposed by Donati, the discoveror, to be identical with that of Fabricius or Charles V. But Babinet denies its identity, because that of Charles went to the east, and this goes to the west, and there is a difference of one hundred degrees in its perihelion. "it is no more to be compared with it," says he, "than the mail from Brest with that of Strasburg." Yet even he has been mistaken in relation to the time of its greatest brightness by at least a month. We are therefore led to believe that this is a new visiter, or else we may suppose that its motion, though elliptical, may be spiral also, as the moon's around the earth, which, when projected upon a map, is a succession of spirals like that of a cork screw when seen at an angle, or scollop edges joined together at each end with a loop. This theory we suggest, without, however, knowing how far it will hold water. It is a suggestion we make as the ink of the preceding paragraph grows dry. If it be objected that the cases are not parallel, we may reply that Herschel thought that the sun has motion, and is carrying with it all his train of planets towards the constellation Hercules. In addition to the periodical comets we have mentioned, there is another claimed to have been discovered in Naples in 1846, by Dr. Peters whom we have reason to suspect is the same astronomer who is mixed up with the difficulty of the Dudley Observatory, and was displaced through the instrumentality of Professor Gould.

From his ephemeris, assigning its probable orbit, it was to appear in twelve or fourteen years; if so, it may be one of the five discovered within the present year, and it is not a little singular that at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Philadelphia a few years since, Professor Gould eulogized Dr. Peters for his service and investigations in this branch of astronomical science.

There are some other curious circumstances relating to our subject, which want of time and space compels us to omit—such as a description of the catalogues of the observed comets; their immense number—supposed by some to be upwards of 20,000—the vibrations of their tails, sometimes distinctly observed, and which some persons think they have detected in the present one; and above all of their uses, the greatest puzzle perhaps of all. Professor Nicholl, of Glasgow, in his work on the Architecture of the Heavens, supposes they have some relation to the nebulosities which exist in remote systems; that they have their root in them, having some important part to play with some grand external scheme of matter, in a state of modification; by Dr. Brindley they are designed to restore the electric equilibrium of the planets. The various speculations of Halley, Arago, and Elie de Beaumont, in relation to the probably effect of a collision of a comet with the earth, have, on a former occasion been fully treated by us in the columns of the HERALD.

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COMETS: THEIR HISTORY AND HABITS.

———

Now that the memorable Comet of 1858 is making such a magnificent spectacle in the heavens, and will soon disappear, a brief account of some of the most famous of these apparitions, and the theories of distinguished philosophers respecting them, will, perhaps, be interesting.

In 1106 there appeared a splendid comet, visible in the daytime all over Europe. It presented the appearance of a fiery beam, stretching from the west toward the north-cast regions of the heavens. The comet of 1264, noticed alike by European and Chinese historians, and popularly believed to announce the death of Pope Urban IV., which really happened in October following, had a tail which stretched across more than half the visible heavens! It is supposed to have been identical with that of 1556, its return is not confidently looked for by astronomers. In 1402 were seen two of the most brilliant on record, one of which spread, after sunset, a magnificent tail 90° long. Both were visible by day. In 1456, the people of Europe were thrown into consternation by the appearance of a comet simultaneously with the fall of Constantinople before the Turks. Comet and Turk were deprecated together, and against the twain was launched the Pope's anathems. It exhibited a tail 60° long. To this comet, on its third subsequent reappearance in 1682, Halley give his name, by being the first to compute its elements. Its period of orbital revolution is some 75 years. The seventeenth century presents a fertile record of cometic phenomena. It 1618, appeared a stranger which surpassed in its train that of 12364, having at one time a tail which measured 101°! One appeared in 1652, which Bevelius describes as being of the size of a half-moon, though having a pale and dismal light. In 1668 another appeared, most brilliant in the south of Europe and in Brazil.

In 1680 came one of the most remarkable on record; and to it belongs the glory of having come under the God-like gaze of Newton, and of having furnished him with data for proving that the movements of comets depend upon the same principles as control the planets in their orbits. This body passed within 150,000 miles of the sun, and at a speed of 880,000 miles per hour! then swept off into space again toward its farther goal, 80,000,000,000, or according to other calculations, 400,000,000,000 miles distant!

in 1689 a comet shone which drew a train of light 68° degrees long. There are grounds for supposing this to be identical with that of 1843.

The eighteenth eentury was distinguished by two comets of remarkable aspect. In 1744, came into view one of the few recorded to have been seen in full sunshine. On the 1st of Feburuary, it was more brilliant than Sirius; on the 8th it equalled Jupiter; on the 1st of March, at 1 o'clock p. m., five hours after its perihelion passage, it was visible to the naked eye. Another in 1769 spanned the heavens with an immense train of light. The first comet of 1811 was remarkable for the length of time it remained visible. That of 1843 us regarded as on of the most wonderful of modern times. It was visible in Bologna, Italy, at noon, two diameters of the sun's disc east of the sun, while passing its perihelion, being then only 96,000 miles distant from that luminary, and its speed 366 miles per second, or 1,317,600 per hour; so, that in twelve minutes it must have passed over a space equal to the distance between the earth and its moon! When its distance from the sun allowed it to be visible after sunset, it presented an appearance of extraordinary magnificence, especially in tropical latitudes. Some astronomers have computed it to have a period of 3,767 years! In July, 1844, one appeared, which has been estimated to have a period of 100,000 years! In 1846, Biela's comet, which is one of the class of "comets of short period," revolving in about 6 2/3 years, startled observers by dividing itself in two, and so passing on its path out of sight! The estimated numbers of comets of which we have account, is upward of 600, nearly all of which are telescopic, and have no tails, though some have appeared with as many as six!

The fewness of their visits and the farness between, the enormous extent of the orbits of some of them, stretching, perhaps, far beyond the limits of our solar system, coming up from the unfathomed depths of space to gleam a few brief days in our sky, and then diving down again out of telescopic sight, on their long but swift journey, it may be to other planetary systems, never to be beheld again by the denizens of our earth, the wonderful tenuity of their substance, and the variety of the hypotheses which different philosophers have offered to account for the phenomena they present, make them an object of sublime interest to the astronomer.

Comets move, commonly, in elliptical orbits of great eccentricity—those of "short period" having their orbits within that of Neptune.

The star-gazer is ever on the lookout for these erratic strangers, poring over the open page, whose letters are worlds, peering, with his far-searching lenses, everywhere between the twinkling, constant little stars, too happy if some wayward little body come dancing into the field of this instrument, and make him its first discoverer. It grows rapidly, sailing out of one constellation into another, and gradually assumes, as it nears the sun, a sort of nebulous hood. This enveloping hood soon lengthens out behind it, forming a train of thin light, which is largest and brightest a little after the passage of the perihelion. This train is always on the side of the comet which is opposite to the sun—a generalization not made by European observers till the time of Appian, 1531, though understood among the Chinese as early as 871. The nucleus or head of a comet when viewed through a powerful glass has the appearance of an irresolvable nebula, or patch of fog, the lens having the effect to diffuse rather than define its outline. The rail has the same hazy character and is of inconceivable tenuity, the smallest telescopic star being visible through it without the slightest appreciable diminution of light, though, according to Herschel, the thickness of this cometic matter, in the comet of 1811, was 15,000,000 miles!

The tails of comets vary in length as seen from different places. That of 1680 had a train 60° long, as measured at Paris, and 90° at Constantinople. That of 1769 extended, on the 9th September, of 43° at London, 55° at Paris, 60° at the Isle of Bourbon, and 75° at Teneriffe—showing that the length of the tail depends on the state of the atmosphere. The length is often enormous—the comet of 1843 being estimated by Prof. Peirce to have a train streaming out 200,000,000 miles into space, or once and a half the distance of the sun from the earth! and all this formed in some three weeks.

The incalculable subtlety of the diffused cometic matter may be inferred from the fact that they have been sometimes known to pass within close proximity to planetary bodies without deranging the motions of the latter in the least perceptible degree. Bexell's comet of 1770 dashed into the midst of the system of Jupiter's satellites without at all affecting their movements. A curious calculation is recorded of Sir Isaac Newton, that if a globe of common atmospheric air, one inch in diameter, were expanded so as to have an equal degree of rarity with the air situated at an elevation of 4,000 miles above the earth's surface, "it would fill the whole planetary regions as far as the sphere of Saturn, and would extend a great deal further." Now, if this enormous extent of attenuated matter can be conceived to be endowed with luminous properties, whether from reflecting the sun's rays, or from its own inherent physical constitution, we can form, proximately, some sort of a realizing sense of the nature of the magnificent feather which now adorns the starry heavens. On this point the speculations of philosophers are interesting.

Before the time of Tycho Brahé European observers had not ventured to refer cometic apparitions to regions beyond the moon's orbit, and supposed them indeed to be substances generated within the earth's atmosphere. The Danish astronomer, however, from observations upon the comet of 1577, proved that these bodies move in orbits beyond the earth's satellite, and were therefore of permanent structure, and independent of the earth. From observing that comets, as the emerge from the depths of space, are nothing but mere specs of nebulosity, which is gradually prolonged into a train as they approach the sun, it was inferred that comets are, in their normal condition, spherical masses, like planets, and that their tails are due, in some unknown way, to the sun. Some early observers supposed the tail was owing to the passage of the sun's rays through the nebulosity of the head, producing an effect similar to what is seen when an beam of the sun pours through an aperture into a darkened room. The Cartesian school referred the effect to the refracting of light, in its passage from the comet to the eyes of the observer, through the celestial ether disseminated through space. If this theory be true, it has been significantly asked, why have the planets and fixed stars no tails? Mairan thought the effect proceeded from the same cause as that which produces the aurora borealis.

The illustrious astronomer, Kepler, who flourished early in the seventeenth century, was the first to offer a rational explanation of this phenomenon. He supposed that the constituent matter of the comet is broken by the action of the solar rays, and the lighter particles impelled to immense distances. Newton conjectured that, as the nebulous particles of the comet become heated by the sun, they communicate a portion of their heat to the contiguous particles of etherial fluid composing the sun's atmosphere. These particles so heated (by reflection, as it were), suffer a corresponding diminution of density, and are repelled from the sun, carrying them with them just as an upward current of air causes smoke to ascend. But all hypotheses must be vague where there are so few well-ascertained data. The great discoveries made of late in electrical forces promise to throw new light upon this profoundly interesting subject.

The close approach of some comets to the sun in their perihelion passage, as, for example, in the case of the great comet of 1843, before mentioned, and the immense distances to which they sometimes recede from him in their aphelia, immeasurable beyond the utmost known limits of our solar system, have led astronomers to infer that comets are subjected, in the course of their orbital revolution, to an amazing degree of heat and cold.

Newton calculated that the comet of 1680 was subjected, at its perihelion distance of 150,000 miles, to a degree of heat 2,000 times that of red-hot iron! While, according to Herschel, the comet of 1843, which passed within 96,000 miles of the sun, received, at its perihelion, an amount of heat equivalent to that of 47,000 suns blazing in our sky! It can scarcely be supposed that matter can be subjected to such a degree of heat without having its structure destroyed. Laplace availed himself of Black's beautiful discovery of latent heat to avoid this difficulty, and taught that when a body is passing from a liquid to a gaseous state, its particles, as they become successively volatilized, abstract from the body large quantities of calorie, and so serve to moderate the temperature of the condensed portion; and, conversely, that this latent calorie is given back by the volatilized matter in the course of its return to a liquid state. So that a comet, whether swinging in its orbit a few thousands of miles from its local source of heat and attraction, or many thousands of millions of miles distant, may preserve an approximate constancy of temperature under the operation of this beautiful law of compensation.

Astronomers often differ widely in their calculations of a comet upon its first appearance; and as, according to Prof. Norton, not more than one-half of all the comets which are recorded to have appeared during the last two thousand years have returned twice to their perihelia, it must be admitted that the amount of well-digested knowleege of their motions and physical constitution can be but small. This much, however, seems to be conceded— that they have an atmosphere, in which the nebulous matter of them floats as clouds do in ours; that the aggregate amount of matter they contain, compared with the least of the heavenly bodies known to us, is exceedingly small; that the tail is constituted of the subtlest portions of the cometic matter, diffused by solar agency; that their orbits are parabolic, or ellipses of great eccentricity; that they are liable to great changes in their periods of revolution, being sometimes made to revolve in orbits, with a quickened or retarded motion, by the attraction of foreign bodies into whose neighborhood they may pass in the course of their eccentric career; and, thus, that of the thousands of comets which are supposed to have our sun for a focus, all, except the half dozen of short periods, must ever elude the grasp of human calculation; and, finally, that some have appeared which will not probably ever revisit our earth! Well we may say, with the sweet Psalmist of Israel:

"Whither shall I go from Thy spirit? or whither shall I feel from Thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, Thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold Thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there shall Thy hand lead me, and Thy right hand shall hold me."

———

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ART. II.— The Physical Atlas; a Series of Maps and Notes illustrative of the Geographical Distribution of Natural Phenomena. By Alex. Keith Honston, F. R. G. S., F. G. S. Imperial Folio, 30 maps and 94 pp. Letter-press. London and Edinburgh, 1848.

2. The Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena. Quarto edition. Part I. Reduced from the edition in Imperial Folio, for the use of colleges, Academies, and Families. London and Edinburgh, 1849.

The periodical literature of a people embodies very intelligibly the kind and extent of social and intellectual progress they have attained at the moment of its appearance. What the many read must accord in the main with the tastes and opinions of the many for the time; And as soon as tastes and opinions change, the hue and tone of periodical literature will change also. But it is only the lighter and more popular tastes of a nation which its periodical literature can be expected to reflect: we must look elsewhere for evidence of their solid acquirements, and of the nature, indeed, of their more permanent and established taste.

It is when a large and expensive work, like that now before us, issues from the press, that we can reasonably infer that the subject of which it treats has already taken hold of the public mind; and has obtained a place among the intellectual wants of the country in which it appears. And the inference will be strengthened where, as in the present instance, the larger work is attended by a humbler companion, fitted for the school and the schoolmaster. Such publications assume that the old and the young, the rick and the poor, are joining in demand.

In this point of view, British science has reason to congratulate herself on the appearance of these Physical Atlases, and may point to them with some degree of pride; for even abstruse departments of natural knowledge must have been popularised among us, before publishers could be encouraged to make the necessary efforts for rendering their beautiful results accessible to all. Inddeed, though Oxford and Cambridge have hitherto done but little for the advancement of this kind of knowledge, we are satisfied, from our own experience of other countries, that in no part of Europe are the sciences of observation so generally appreciated, and so widely diffused among the mass of ordinarily-educated people, as in our own.

The Physical Atlas of Mr. Keith Johnston comprises four series of maps: a geological series of ten maps; a meteorological series of five maps; a hydrographical series of six maps; and a phytological and zoological series of nine maps.

The first series contains four maps of the mountain systems and chains of Europe, Asia, and America; one of the glacier regions of the Alps; two of the most remarkable volcanic phenomena; one double map, representing the general geological structure of the globe; and two single maps, the special structure of the British Isles.

The second series consists of physical charts of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; maps of the river systems of Europe, Asia, and America; and a tidal chart of the British Seas.

The third series represents the isothermal lines and lines of equal barometric pressure, in one map; the geographical distribution of hurricanes, typhoons, and other aërial disturbances, in a second; the polarising structure of the atmosphere in a third; and in two hyetographic maps, the general distribution of rain over the whole world, and its more special distribution over the surface of Europe.

The fourth series exhibits the geographical distribution of plants in general in one map, and that of the plants which serve as food for man in another; and that of the mammiferous, the carnivorous, and the ruminant animals respectively, in three maps; that of birds and reptiles, in two maps; and, in two more, the ethnography of Europe and that of the British Islands.

For the idea of these interesting maps we are indebted to the illustrious Humboldt; for the first execution of them to Professor Berghaus, of Berlin; and for the present improved, enlarged, and beautifully-executed Atlas to the hands and head of Mr. Keith Johnston, of Edinburgh.*

* Other works of this kind, more comprehensive in some senses, but of a more special kind, have been projected in other countries, but are almost all as yet unexecuted. Of these, the linear and shaded maps of criminal statistics by M. Guerry are an admirable example, and are now ready for the press. The one which embraces the widest range of subjects is the 'Administrative and Statistical Atlas of Belgiuim:' it is projected by the well known geographer of Brussels, M. Van der Maelen, in co-operation with the eminent statist M. Heuschling, to whom Belgian statistics are under so many obligations. Its title and proposed contents are as folows: —

'"Atlast Administratif et Statistique du Royaume de Belgique," dressé et publié en collaboration avec M. Xavier Heuschling, par Philippe Van der Maelen.

'Cet atlas se composera d'une série de cartes construites à l'échelle de 1 à 400,000 sur une feuille grand colombier. Chaque carte, comprenant toutes les communes du Royaume avec leur circonscription territoriale, sera consacrée à une branche spéciale de l'administration ou à une partie de la


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170 The Physical Atlas. April,

From a work so rich in information, and so varied in its materials, it is almost impossible to select and compress into a moderate compass any thing which will give the general reader a satisfactory idea of its character and contents. It is a merit which may justly be conceded to these thirty maps, that almost every one of them embodies the materials of many volumes—the results of long years of research—and exhibits the most valuable thoughts of the most distinguished men of the age, pictured visibly to the eye.

It might appear at first sight, and especially to the unlearned into whose hands the Atlas should come, as if the subjects illustrated in these maps had been taken at random out of the vast domain of natural knowledge, in order to form the book; as if the races of men and the distribution of birds and reptiles had no connexion whatever with geological strata and fossils, or with Alpine glaciers; as if the geographical distribution of plants, the polarisation of the atmosphere, and the tides, temperatures, storms, soundings, and currents of our seas and great oceans, were subjects wide apart from each other; as if the position and parallelism of mountain chains, or of active and extinct volcanoes, the distribution of typhoons, the course and limits of Indian hurricanes, the sources and directions of rivers, the regions which nourish the various plants on which we live, and the study of the races of men who, from time to time, have conquered and peopled the different parts of our own islands, were fields of research so discontiguous and remote, that even philosophers might long traverse them all without once meeting on any common ground.

But far different is the expectation of the eager scholar, who has once looked over Humboldt's ' Kosmos,' or Mrs. Somerville's 'Connection of the Sciences.' He enters on the examination of the various branches of natural knowledge in the well-grounded confidence that they will be found to constitute a harmonious WHOLE, closely cemented in all its parts. And though any work on the phenomena of nature which should embody even all we at present know would still exhibit many large gaps, yet the instructed eye will perceive a common unity pervading all, and points of connexion among the most distant and apparently discordant topics of which it treats. So a uniting thread may be traced through the varied subjects delineated in the maps of this Physical Atlas, and discussed in its letter-press;—a thread which untwists, as you follow it, into many strands, representing different trains of thought—any one of which will lead us from map to map in search of reasons for the new facts that successively strike us, and will bring us at last to the ethnographic series—to Man himself, and his varieties, as palpably and intimately concerned with the first of the topics, whatever that may be, with which we had set out.

We shall better succeed, we believe, in imparting to our readers some conception of the multifarious and yet singularly well digested information comprised in the present work, by asking them to accompany us in tracing a few of the connecting links which the series of maps thus presents to an intelligent student, than by any catalogue or specimens of their contents. We propose, therefore, to select a leading train of thought suggested by one of the earliest maps, and shall see how far, in following it out, the succeeding maps will furnish us with the materials necessary for our progress.

Turn, for example, to the first or geological series, and, among these, to that which represents the geology or palæontology of the British Isles, coloured under the direction of Professor Edward Forbes. How rich in obvious instruction,—how suggestive of interesting thought and inquiry, is this map! The various colours represent, not only the various rocky formations, but diversified mineral productions also, and different agricultural capabilities and tendencies. They indicate where great cities establish themselves, and why; what brings masses of people together in particular localities, of what special class this population is composed, and what are likely to be its moral and social dispositions; why one

statistique, d'après un système arrêté a l'avance. Ainsi il y aura une carte pour chacune des divisions communale et provinciale, judiciaire, ecclesiastique, militaire, etc.; des cartes historique et archéologique, hydrographique et orographique, météorologique et méicale, géologique, botanique, zoologique, agricole, forestière et minérale, industrielle et commerciale, financière, douanière, domaniale, electorale; des cartes pour les voies de communication, les postes et messageries, pour la population absolue et relative, par langues et dialectes, par cultes, par professions et conditions sociales, pour la mortalité et la reproduction, pour la bientfaisance, le paupérisme, la criminalité et les prisons, pour l'instruction publique, les sciences, les lettres et les arts. Un texte explicatif et descriptif, donné en marge, complétera les détails de chaque carte; les renseignement seront puisés aux meilleures sources et dans les documents les plus récents. En un mot, les auteurs se proposent d'appliquer à l'administration et à la statistique générale du pays, la pensées de Condorcet lorsqu'il prédit l'époque où l'état de nos connaissances ne pourra plus être exposé que dans des tableaux synoptiques.' What a mass of interesting information such a book would contain! but what dozen men are equal to the compilation of it?


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1849 The Physical Atlas. 171

manufacture takes root on this spot, and another on that; why here corn waves, or cattle fatten, or sheep crop the springing herbage; why here the rich proprietor and the wealthy farmer live together in comfort, and encourage each other in progressive improvement—why there husbandry is backward, the proprietor in difficulties, and the cultivator wasting life and means in a heartless struggle.

It must be well known to most of our readers that the black spots of varied extent and form, which here and there stand out like blots on the surface of a geological map of Great Britain, indicate the districts in which mineral fuel is found and is more or less extensively dug up. Upon such black spots, therefore, on whatever map they are seen, it is almost certain that a large population either already exists, or will spring up at some future period; that the employment of this population will be in mining for coal—in digging or smelting the ores of iron or copper or lead—in moulding and baking pottery—in fabricating machinery and other works in metal—in manufacturing glass, or alkali, or alum—in converting the raw cotton and wool and flax into woven and printed cloths of various texture—or in some of those many other arts which busy themselves with crude materials on a large scale, and which require much mechanical power at a cheap rate, to admit of their being economically carried on.

The natural reason for the growth of large towns and crowded populations, for a principal class at least, such as Swansea, Bristol, Merthyr-Tydvil, Nottingham, Wolverhampton, Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds, Manchester, and Glasgow,—(since other considerations give importance to London, Liverpool, Dublin, Cork, Belfast, &c.,)—is to be found in the geological structure of the rocks on which the people live. And as long as crowded haunts are permitted to breed pestilence and immorality, an inspection of the map will enable us to pronounce also on the social and moral condition, actual or future, of the inhabitants—and to tell both in what way and to what extent they contribute to the general wealth and power of the state, and what care and provision of moral and intellectual superintendence ought to be assured to them in return.

Again, at the southern extremity of Lanarkshire, where it touches Dumfries, and is bordered by the still infant streams of the Nith and the Clyde, our map indicates a region of lead mines, the dwelling-place of a thoughtful, intelligent, book-loving, faithful, and steadfast people. Upon the Allan, and the Wear, and the Tees, in Northumberland and Durham and among the higher Yorkshire dales, there are similar mines, and a similar people: and so where Derby boasts its Peak and the country round Matlock likened to the Vale of Tempe, and in Flint and Devon, and in ancient mining Cornwall, where tin and copper have been followed deeper into the bowels of the earth than in any other part of the world. These seats of buried riches are at once visible upon the map; while to the instructed eye it also points out in them the home of a peculiar race of people—higher altogether in mental habits, in morals, and in enterprise, than what other and perhaps neighbouring spots are nourishing. And when on the geological maps of other countries similar colours present themselves, they tell of similar mineral accumulations, and of the probable existence, actual or future, of an equally ingenious, hardy, and persevering people.

Without dwelling further on the fund of thought, hidden, so to speak, beneath the varied colours of a geological map, we may at once assume, that the mineral riches which these colours intimate, prove likewise the existence of materials for exchange and exportation, either native and raw, or manufactured into various products of skilled labour. Such materials necessarily give rise to commercial intercourse with other countries, and to a demand for that varied knowledge of the resources of those countries, and of their coasts and seaports and rivers which the foreign merchant must possess, and that familiarity with the physical-history of the seas, which is indispensable to a navigator, and which the book before us embodies. Led by such reflections we might proceed to the other charts and maps of the Physical Atlas, and show how one train of thought connects each of them in succession with the geological map of the British Islands, from which we started:—how the meteorological and hydrographical series are rich in the kind of information which an educated seaman must delight to have before him, and how the entire phytological series forms a species of vade-mecum for the enlightened British merchant.

But we prefer to follow another train of thought, suggested by the palæontological map, which to our minds is more striking, and will, we think, prove both more interesting and more instructive to the reader. To the student of Agriculture in its largest sense, the colours of a geological map are especially instructive. They tell him the where and the wherefore, in reference to many of the most interesting questions which


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172 The Physical Atlas. April,

bear on rural progress and agricultural history.

In every country of Europe there are tracts of land which from the most remote antiquity have been more densely peopled than the surrounding regions. These are the districts which, on the arrival of the earliest settlers, were found in their natural state to be susceptible of easy and profitable arable culture. Soils easily laboured and moderately pervious to water invited the earliest husbandman, and with least toil yielded the heaviest crops of corn. Other tracts, again, have grown during all historic time a perennial herbage, where cattle graze or sheep fatten, which the plough has rarely violated, and seldom with a profit to the over-venturesome husbandman. On others, again, poverty prevails both in corn and cattle; with chilly fields or wind-obeying sands and penurious homesteads; and broad bands seen to cross whole kingdoms—sometimes naturally to separate them—on which even modern skill and enterprise have failed as yet to raise up vegetable luxuriance and rural plenty.

A geological map rightly understood indicates of itself where these several agricultural differences naturally exist: for the soils partake of the general characters of the rocks by the crumbling of which they are formed; and the colours of the map show the limits to which these several rocks extend.

In Great Britain generally, the old and new red sand-stones, and in Scotland the trap rocks also, have formed and generally sustain soils of easy culture, which have been subject to the plough for the longest period, and on which the most ancient villages and church towns exist. The long undulating stripe of lias clay, which winds with varying breadth and outline from the mouth of the Tees to Lyme Regis, and the Oxford clay and that of the Weald, are covered by soils too stubborn in their native state to yield at the proper seasons to the persuasions of the harrow and the ploughshare;—and accordingly experience has taught the farmer to leave them in perpetual grass. And if the eye be turned to the northern side of the Scottish border, a tract of country of a greyish tint is seen to stretch from St. Abb's Head on the east, to the Mull of Galloway on the west, characterised by poor soils and humbler farmers,—over which cold inky lochs and wide heaths, at not unfrequent intervals, arrest the traveller on his way.

A geological map, therefore, is an invaluable storehouse of agricultural information. These tints which variegate its surface express diversities of soil, inheriting different agricultural qualities; and these qualities determine the nature of the crops which can be the most profitably grown, the kind of improvement which is required, and the pecuniary outlay which is most likely to be repaid. And what makes this knowledge the more important, is the interesting fact, to which we have alluded,—that what is true of soils represented by a given colour in one country is generally true of those represented by the same colour in another. Thus the agricultural experience of a particular region, instead of having a merely local value, as men used to think, become incorporated with the common experience and knowledge of mankind. Other things being equal, the same colours indicate soils generically the same; the culture, which succeeds on them in one part of the world, ought to succeed in others; the same implements should be required, the same grains and roots grown, the same stock thrive, the same improvements be attempted; and, with equal skill and prudence, equal profits might be expected.

How simple and yet how large the views which the statesman may derive from the study of this branch of science! The agricultural resources and capabilities of the various countries of the globe are uncovered, as it were, to the eye; and with these, the springs of their past difficulties or greatness, their powers of actual resistance or endurance, their prospects in future time, their value as conquests or colonies.

Of such views, the most extensive and most comprehensive are to be obtained from the second chart of this series—the chart which exhibits the geological structure of the entire globe, according to the researches of M. Ami Boué.

There are some among us who of late years have delighted in holding up Russia and the United States, as objects of our political apprehension. When they learn to decipher the tints of the map of which we are speaking, they will probably think themselves entitled to draw from them still more alarming prognostications. Judging from the wealth and power which her small patch of blue has given to England, we may augur a lofty after-history to the empire of the Autocrat, as well as to our relatives beyond the Atlantic. But this lofty future England hopes to see and share; she does not fear it. Mental and moral culture are now inseparable, we think, from physical and material development; and we have the consolation of believing that the freaks of power in past ages will become impossible among our posterity.

We have said that, other things being equal,


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1849. The Physical Atlas. 173

the colours of the geological map indicate certain almost universal agricultural truths. But many circumstances occur in nature to alter the conditions, and more or less effectually to modify the conclusions to which geological data alone would lead us. Among these, the most influential are the several elements which are comprehended under the general term of climate. We must turn our attention, therefore, to a few of these; and see how far and in what parts of the earth they interfere with our wider deductions.

British crops during the past harvest suffered from unseasonable, and, in some places, overwhelming rains. The fall of rain, therefore, is to be taken into account as an element of climate, which will always be likely to affect our reasonings on agricultural capabilities. Nothing is more certain than that the amount of rain and the seasons of its descent determine in a great degree the nature of the husbandry of every country. Of this the most complete and instructive illustrations are presented by the two rain maps which are comprised in the meteorological series of the Atlas.

Like the shadows of clouds scattered over an April sky, dark spots rest on various parts of the rain map of the world. The Indian islands, and China, and the shores of Hindostan, and the central zones of Africa and America, and our own Britain and Ireland, lie in the blackest shade. They are, in reality, the oftenest clouded over, and the most frequented by rain. The bright sunshine which rests on Northern Africa, and Central Asia, and on the shores of Mexico and Peru, tells of perpetual drought, and barrenness, and sand; while the dark riband which encircles the globe a few degrees north of the equator, is resonant with the fearful thunder of the tropical regions, accompanied by deluges of rain which rarely cease.

But from the rain map of the wide world, we willingly turn to that of Europe—and resume our thread of agricultural observation. On comparing the indications of productive capability which this map exhibits with those of the geological charts, we observe that in some places the two concur, while in others they are opposed. In some districts, which by their geological structure are naturally arable, the quantity of rain, the months in which it comes down, and the number of rainy days are all in favour of cereal culture; while in others the quantity of rain, or the season of its fall, is such as to condemn the country to pasture only, or to cover it with unprofitable bogs.

To those who interest themselves with the general advance of European agriculture, the lines and shadings of this map have much meaning. We have said that, generally speaking, similar colours on the geological maps of two countries indicate not only similar soils, but similar methods of improving them. Now improvement by drainage is a method which, in Great Britain and Ireland, is universally acknowledged to be of the first importance and of the most certain profit. We sometimes express our wonder, therefore, that the other nations of Europe are so slow in following our example. But the fall of rain, no less than the nature of the soil, is an element in every question concerning the necessity or propriety of drainage. Now the former of these elements is supplied by the map before us for every part of Europe; and it is satisfactory to learn from it that the experience of the British islands, and especially of the best cultivated parts of Scotland, is directly applicable to large portions of Europe, and supports the general expediency of thorough drainage wherever the nature of the soil would otherwise warrant an opinion in its favour.

But the temperature of the air in any particular place has also an important bearing upon the actual productiveness of its soil, whatever may be its mineral character, and however propitiously the rains may fall upon it. To study this point, we must turn to the lines of equal mean temperature, the isothermal lines of Humboldt, which are delineated on the first map of the meteorological series. To the numerous questions—historical, social, and sanatory—which the study of these lines and of the letter-press which accompanies them is fitted to suggest or answer, it would lead us from our immediate subject even to advert. That the land is permanently frozen in Labrador and Kamschatka, in a latitude as southerly as Dublin, while it annually thaws in Lapland, and suffers itself to be tilled and cropped almost to the North Cape, in the high latitude of seventy degrees; that in North-western America, in like manner, far within the Russian limits, the line of permanent ground frost bends northwards to the fifty-sixth, and in North-western Europe to the seventieth degree, while towards the South Pole it binds up every known spot of land south of sixty degrees :—these facts, besides their interest in other points of view, especially illustrate the value and necessity of a chart of isothermal lines to a clear understanding not only of the agricultural capabilities of a country, but also of the extent to which we ought to confide in the partial generalisations on the subject, to which other considerations may have predisposed us.


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175 The Physical Atlas. April,

narrow circular valleys surrounded by lofty walls, circus-like cauldrons which, as in Greece and a portion of Asia Minor, give individual local characters to the climate, in respect of warmth, moisture, frequency of winds and storms, and transparency of the atmosphere,'—and the numerous illustrations of such facts which they afford, are highly worthy of the attention of our readers. But we pass on to another less known and obvious, but very interesting, influence upon vegetable growth which others of these maps place before our eyes.

We are familiar with the effect of prevailing winds or currents of air in forwarding or retarding vegetation, in every part of the globe; and also with the modifying influence of large bodies of water on the climate of the adjoining land. But the special effect of currents of water, of those mighty sea rivers which in various directions traverse the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, is not so generally understood. In the physical charts of these oceans which the 'Atlas' contains, the course, extent or size, velocities and temperatures of these great sea rivers, are by shaded outlines and numerous notes made distinctly intelligible. We notice only two or three of the facts connected with them, which bear upon the subject of practical agriculture.

The Gulf Stream, as it is called, has been heard of by every one. Commencing to the south of the Cape of Good Hope, it crosses the southern Atlantic, enters the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, and by the Straits of the Bahamas rushes again eastward, at the rate of 40 to 100 miles a day, along the coast of America, and the banks of Newfoundland, till it strikes against the Spanish and French coasts, or, rushing further north among the Hebrides and the inlets of the Norwegian coast, finally loses itself in the Arctic Sea, and towards the shores of Spitzbergen.

The waters of this great river are warmer than those through which they flow—especially than those of the Northern Atlantic—by many degrees; and thus they carry warmth with them to whatever shores they come.

An inspection of the maps of isothermal lines, and of the geographical distribution of cultivated plants, will bring under the eye of the reader the remarkable curve which the isotherm of thirty degrees and the isothere of fifty take towards the North Cape; and will show him how the geographical limit of the growth of barley bends in like manner,—enabling the Laplanders to live and to cultivate grain, in a latitude which in every other region of the globe is subjected to undissolving frost. That the warmth borne towards this region by the ever-flowing gulf stream is one cause of this remarkable bend in the lines of warmth, and of the consequent extension of the limits of human habitation and of the growth of corn, shows what a close connexion may subsist between the most remote studies and pursuits; and how much the rewards even of skilful labour, and the value of whole regions of country may be dependant upon causes the least dreamt of or generally suspected. Stop the gulf stream, or turn it southward or westward, when it reaches the centre of the Northern Atlantic, and ice and unmelted snow would cover Lapland and Norway with a continuous glacier; and life and culture would disappear, not only on the western Scandinavian borders, but in all probability on the northern parts of our own island.

The mariner who first crossed the central Atlantic in search of a new world, was astonished when, on the 19th of September, 1492, he found himself in the midst of that great bank of sea-weed—the sea-weed meadow of Oviedo—the Sargasso Sea,* which, with a varying breadth of 100 to 300 miles, stretches over twenty-five degrees of latitude, covering 260,000 square miles of surface, like a huge floating garden, in which countless myriads of minute animals find food and shelter. Now, it is the eddy of the numerous sea rivers which collect in one spot, and the cold water of the Northern Atlantic mixing with the warm streams of the western and southern currents, which produce the temperature most fitted to promote the amazing development of vegetable and animal life. What becomes of the dead remains of this vast marine growth? Do they decompose as fast as they are produced? or do they accumulate into deposits of peculiar coal, destined to reward the researches of future geologists and engineers, when the Atlantic of our day has become the habitable land of an after time?

In the chart of the Pacific Ocean we are presented with another remarkable instance of the influence of sea rivers on vegetation. From the shores of South Victoria on the Antarctic continent, a stream of cold water, sixty degrees in width (the reader will recollect that in high latitudes the degrees of longitude are very narrow), drifts slowly along in a north-east and easterly direction across the southern Pacific, till it impinges upon the South American coast to the south

*Sargasso Sea of the Spanish and Portuguese, Kroos Zee of the Dutch, and Grassy Sea of the English navigators.


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1849 The Physical Atlas. 177

of Valparaiso. There it divides into two arms; one of which stretches south and east, doubles Cape Horn, and penetrates into the south-western Atlantic; the other flows first north-east and then north-west along the shores of Chili and Peru, carrying colder waters into the warm sea, and producing a colder air along the low plains which stretch from the shores of the Pacific to the base of the Andes. This current, discovered by Humboldt, and called after his name, lowers the temperature of the air about twelve degrees; while that of the water itself is sometimes as much as twenty-four degrees colder than that of the still waters of the ocean through which it runs. The cold air seriously affects the vegetation along the whole of this coast: at the same time, that the cold stream raises fogs and mists, which not only conceal the shores and perplex the navigator, but extend inland also, and materially modify the climate.

The beautiful and beneficent character of this modifying influence becomes not only apparent but most impressive, when we consider, as the rain map of the world shows us, that on the coast of Peru no rain ever falls; and that, like the desert Sahara, it ought therefore to be condemned to perpetual barrenness. But in consequence of the cold stream thus running along its borders, 'the atmosphere loses its transparency, and the sun is obscured for months together. The vapours at Lima are often so thick that the sun seen through them with the naked eye assumes the appearance of the moon's disk. They commence in the morning and extend over the plains in the form of refreshing fogs, which disappear soon after mid-day, and are followed by heavy dews which are precipitated during the night.' The morning mists and the evening dews thus supply the place of the absent rains; and the verdure which covers the plains is the offspring of a sea river. What a charming myth would the ancient poets have made out of this striking compensation!

We may here be indulged in a momentary digression, for the purpose of remarking the wonderful revolution which steam navigation is destined to accomplish in the commercial intercourse of this west coast of South America. To sail northwards with the current from Valparaiso to Callao, a distance of 1600 miles, occupies eight or nine, and from Callao to Guayaquil four or five days; while the return from Guayaquil to Callao occupies twenty-five days on an average, and to Valparaiso often several months. Steam already succeeds in returning to Callao, against wind and current, in five days—and to Valparaiso in about as many; and improved machinery will soon shorten the time still further. The means of maintaining an extensive steam navigation are also discovered to be abundant—the coast about Talca, to the south of Valparaiso, being described by Mr. Wheelwright as ' one entire mass of coal.' What a number of contrivances seem here to be heaped together to make amends for one original deprivation!

We have now adverted more or less fully to each series of the maps contained in the Physical Atlas; and trust we have shown how naturally the consideration of a single subject leads us from one to the other, and how large a fund of novel information bearing upon that subject is found awaiting us in every chart we turn to. But there is still one element of agricultural prosperity, no less influential than soil and climate, to which we have not yet adverted, but to which the last two maps in the Atlas forcibly draw our attention. This element is Man himself.

We confine our field of vision at present to Europe. Various countries of this quarter of the globe, possessing equal advantages of soil and climate—as favourably situated in respect of physical position, means of intercourse with other nations,settled government, public encouragement to agriculture, means of improvement of all kinds—are seen, nevertheless, to exhibit very unlike degrees of productiveness in the soil and of comfort and independence among those who till it, or who are directly supported by its produce.

Those who have not previously reflected on the importance of the human element, and the influence of variety of race in the development of the resources of a country, will discover in the two ethnographic maps materials for thought of a more curious and more serious nature than any we have yet considered. A general acquaintance with the actual condition of agriculture in the several kingdoms of Europe will enable the careful student of the first of these maps—the Ethnographic Map of Europe—to trace a not indistinct connexion between that condition and the colours by which the varieties of the human race who occupy these kingdoms are distinguished from each other.

The three great varieties—the Sclavonic, the Teutonic, and the Celtic—divide among them all the better parts of Western Europe; but the countries they respectively occupy exhibit very different degrees of agricultural prosperity. Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Wales, and the central


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180 The Physical Atlas. April,

the east coast confirms this observation. Along the Moray Frith and the shores of Caithness and Sutherland, the fathers and grandfathers of many of the leading practical farmers have been Lothian or Berwickshire men; and a strong blood relationship has made its way among the rural families of this whole coast line. No one who knows the transformation which the last fifty years have effected upon the appearance and productiveness of Sutherland, will deny that the blood of the cultivator, no less than that of the stock he rears, is a most important element in the value of the harvests which given soils in given climates are found to yield.

A feeling of agricultural rivalry, perhaps of jealousy, has of late years been awakened between the Lothian farmers in Scotland and the Lincolnshire farmers in England. The latter have been led to believe that as a body they are not second, either in skill or in visible progress, to the most famous of their Scottish brethren; and, without presuming to decide the point, we must allow to our southern neighbours a very large share of merit indeed. But if, as we have conjectured, the Danish element has something to do with the farming progress and energy of Lincolnshire, it may not be uninteresting to our Scottish friends of the east coast, to remind them that the Scandinavian includes the Danish element; and that thus similarity of blood may have had something to do in giving life and success to the rural exertions of both communities. Somewhat allied in race, they have been so in industry also; and, instead of conceiving any childish jealousy, they may well rejoice in each other's progress—as all reasonable Britons must rejoice in the growing prosperity of our Transatlantic cousins.

From other parts of our own island, and most strikingly from Ireland, we might adduce numerous instances of the way in which geological and ethnographic maps illustrate each other—how, on the one hand, the nature of the soil gradually leads to a change in the race of its inhabitants; and how, on the other hand, the race may gradually alter the natural characters of the soil as indicated by geology. We will adduce only one example of each of these consequences drawn from the same northern part of Britain to which we were just alluding.

The Orkney Islands in the Ethnographic Map are coloured of a pale green. Where King Haco ruled and died, there must be much Scandinavian blood; but the Celto-Gaelic is supposed to predominate in the present inhabitants. They differ, therefore, from the yellow-shaded northern coasts, in which the purer Teuton blood is found. But the Geological Map colours these islands dark brown; and their soils are consequently similar to those of the red land of which we have been speaking. The same general connexion, therefore, does not here exist between the rocks and the people which we met with in our journey from Berwick, with few interruptions, all the way to the county of Caithness. It is a curious fact, however, that the improvement of the means of communication—by mails, by steamers, and by railroads—between these islands and the different parts of the mainland is at this moment rapidly removing this apparent incongruity. The same temperament which deters the sons of the red soil from migrating across the Lammermuir hills, has hitherto confined them chiefly to the lower parts and to the mainland of Scotland. But it has recently come to their knowledge that the Orkney Islands, in many parts, bear a soil of similar kind, and equal in value, to that which their own forefathers have so long tilled, and far easier to cultivate than the low sea-side lands of Sutherland, which the gentlemen who hold their annual symposia at Golspie, have so triumphantly overcome. Migrations, therefore, are taking place to the Orkneys, under the recent facilities of steam. Farmers of purer Scandinavian descent, of stouter frames, and graver heads and heavier purses, are fast settling there; and are already reaping abundant harvests of corn where their Celtic predecessors had hitherto failed to bring out the capabilities of the soil. Thus future ethnologists will find it necessary to mingle in the successive maps of these islands more and more of the Scandinavian yellow with the Celtic blue—until the existing discord between soil and race shall have insensibly disappeared.

Another example presents the converse of all this. It is taken from the changes at present proceeding under the hands of the energetic population of Aberdeenshire. The geological tints of this county are generally unfavourable to great agricultural improvement. But the ancient Danish and other varieties of Teutons, whom different motives brought from time to time to settle on this coast, discovered sources of wealth in its rivers and harbours; and spreading inland along the banks of the Dee and the Don, and by the sides of their many tributary streams, and over the wider hollows which occur in the upper country and on the more fertile bases of its granitic hills, they long ago raised corn and cattle almost equal to those of their northern and southern neighbours.


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1849 The Physical Atlas. 181

But the easier and more naturally fertile spots being now pre-occupied, they have allowed their patient energy—at first more slowly and reluctantly, but of late years fully and freely—to expand itself over the higher and less favoured adjoining lands.

The same thing has taken place to a greater or less extent throughout the inner borders of all the red land with which we have been brought in contact, along the confines which separate the Scandinavian from the Gaelo-Teutonic blood; and thus the reader, should he ever trace our footsteps through this country upon his own feet, must not expect to find the limits of race anywhere exactly bounded by purely geological divisions. But the less hospitable space over which the improving Teutonic influence has spread, is at the present time broader, perhaps, and more striking in Aberdeenshire than in any other part of the North. The agricultural efforts by which that county is now steadily advancing, are, indeed, very encouraging to the student of social progress. They exhibit the natural expansion of a persevering people; who, after having already occupied all the soil, the tillage of which was suitable to their habits, were driven to attempt the improvement of the less familiar and promising districts, on which the Celt had hitherto slumbered out his ill-provided and penurious life. Here, therefore, he sees a natural cause in operation, which will gradually destroy that clear connexion between the tints of the Geological and Ethnographic maps which we have found subsisting over so large an area at present.

But our limits warn us that we must here drop our agricultural thread. The line along which it has guided us, from the beginning of our Atlas to its close, has not only exhibited the vast amount of varied and attractive information which these maps have brought together; but it has enabled us to see how ample are the uses of natural science—how it abounds in grave thoughts, full of practical and moral bearing—how intimately all its branches are connected—and how impossible it is to follow out a train of thought originating in any one of them, without at the same time borrowing help and light from every other. There are few minds, like that of Humboldt, so naturally capacious and so marvellously trained, that, without foreign aid, they can take in at a glance the entire domain of natural knowledge; and view the universe in all its parts as one single and united whole. To more limited faculties, seeking for greater generalisation than we can compass of ourselves, an Atlas like the present is an invaluable help. And this, not merely because the mind is enlarged and enlightened and refreshed by such wide views, but because it is at the same time sustained and purified—and made more reverent of Him in whom the fulness of all knowledge dwells.

At the commencement of this article we presumed to hope that it was a fair inference, from the appearance of an atlas like the present, that natural knowledge was beginning to assume, among the public at large, a place more commensurate with its inherent importance, and with its bearings on some of the most interesting questions of social life. Under this impression we welcome with equal satisfaction the humbler Atlas, which the Messrs. Johnston are preparing for the use of schools, of which some of the maps are now before us.

Positive knowledge bearing on the pursuits and occupations of after life, and on the wants and mutual relations of the various classes of society, is the kind of information in which our schools have hitherto been most conspicuously deficient. But whatever the taste and the desire for it may be—and both the taste and the desire are becoming greater everyday—the machinery or tools for imparting it must be not only made ready, but be brought within the reach of all, before the most willing instructor can comply with the demands of an advancing age. In this point of view the School Physical Atlas* is a very seasonable contribution to our works on education.

Future legislators will probably wonder how those who guided the fortunes and diplomacy of nations could see their way through the intricate relations of the different countries of the world, without the knowledge which maps like the present will have made familiar to themselves: Future agriculturists will scarcely understand how their forefathers could have got on, without the lights which geology and physiology, and the study of temperatures and rain maps, and ocean currents and botanical geography, only can afford. And the reader of books will be surprised that men could pretend to run through such works as the 'Kosmos of Humboldt,' the 'Physical Geography of Mrs. Somerville,' or the 'Botanical Lectures of Schleiden'†, without having before

*We regret to find that the school series is not intended to include a geological map of the United Kingdom. By printing the colours from stone, as is done with the small Geological Map of France, coloured by Elie de Beaumont, it might be got up at a comparatively low price.

†Die Pflanze und ihr Leben. Leipzig, 1848.



VOL. LXXXIX. 13


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182 Taylor's Eve of Conquest. April,

them a Physical Atlas and its well constructed maps. The time may come when such an Atlas will be as much a part of an ordinary library as a common Geographical Atlas is at the present day.

———

ART. III.—The Eve of the Conquest, and other Poems. By HENRY TAYLOR.

THE admirers of every poet whose enterprise, genius, and fortune have succeeded in producing that rare phænomenon, a long poem of sustained interest and sterling worth, are generally as ardent in their affection for his minor poems, as in their reverence for his more elaborate and more distinguished work. A volume of Milton will most probably open of itself somewhere near the Allegro or the Lycidas; and while Petrarca's 'Africa' (his 'magnum opus') reposes in oblivion, his sonnets, more relaxations, so trivial that the good Canonico saw no reason for not writing them in the vulgar tongue, live in the hearts of thousands, or at least in the more cordial part of their fancy.

It is not surprising that it should be so. A long poem, if conducted with a genius equal to the theme, has indeed its advantages, especially those of comprehending a larger sphere of interest, employing a greater number of the poetic faculties, and including more various elements in a richer harmony and ampler keeping. On the other hand, it is seldom conceived, as a whole, with the completeness which belongs to the design of a short poem; and that portion of it which did not enter into the original conception, is in danger of hanging about it with an awkwardness which betrays a prosaic origin. Again, no amount of executive skill can wholly atone for defects in the subject matter; and the subject of a composition of any length is apt to reveal, at the last moment, some inherent defect, as provoking as the black spot which sometimes comes out in the marble, when the statue is all but finished.

There are other advantages which belong exclusively to a short poem. It is rendered buoyant, by a fuller infusion of that essential poetry which pervades, rather as the regulating mind than the vivifying soul, a body of larger dimensions. The particular beauty which results from symmetry is most deeply felt, when the piece lies within so small a compass, that the grace of proportion is recognised by an immediate consciousness, and not merely detected by patient and progressive survey. In the case, too, of pieces, consisting of a few lines only, though they may not treat directly of a passage of human life, they, for the most part, will have been suggested by something experienced or observed, and thus touching nature at many points, will draw strength from frequent contact with its native soil; whereas a longer work, even though not abstract in its subject, joins thought on to thought and image to image, without remanding the poet to the common ground of reality; and being thus ' carved out of the carver's brain,' is apt, if not of first-rate excellence, to meet with a cold response from men, whose associations are different from those of the poet. It may be added, that short poems bring us more near to the poet:—And to impart and elicit sympathy is among the chief functions of those who may be called the brother-confessors of mankind. For, however devoid of egotism he may be, he must unavoidably present more aspects of his own many-sided being, when expatiating on many themes; and in many moods, than when engrossed by a single task. Their brevity also makes them more minutely known, and more familiarly remembered. They are small enough to be embraced: and if we cannot repose beneath them as under a tree, we can bear them in our breast like flowers.

Mr. Taylor's short poems are characterised by the same qualities which distinguish 'Philip Van Artevelde' and 'Edwin the Fair.' That robust strength which belongs to truth, and that noble grace which flows from strength when combined with poetic beauty, are exhibited in them not less distinctly than in the larger works by which his reputation has been established. Their subjects as well as their limits, for the most part, exclude Passion in its specific tragic form; but, on the other hand, they are wrought out with a more discriminating touch than his dramas. There is in them a majestic tenderness ennobled by severity; and, at the same time, a sweetness and mellowness, which are often missed in the best youthful poetry; and which come not till age has seasoned the instrument, as well as perfected the musician's skill. While not less faithful to nature, they have more affinities with art than their predecessors. Retaining the same peculiar temperament, light, firm, and vigorous (for true poetry has ever a cognisable temperament, as well as its special intellectual constitution), their moral sympathies are both loftier and wider, and respire a softer clime. To this we should add, that their structure is uniformly based


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Rivers

GEOGRAPHY. 51

83 Rhodes, island in the Mediterranean. Home on the ocean wave, 36 N. 28 W.
84 Sea Horse Island, north-east of Spitzbergen. Fine map, 82 " 39 "
85 Smyrna, Turkey in Asia. Muff on the nub, 38 " 29 E.
86 St. Helena, home of the exiled emperor. Tall Jew, 15 S. 06 W.
87 St. Paul island, Indian Ocean. Moss cake, 30 " 77 "
88 Teneriffe, one of the Canary Islands. Enough talk, 28 " 17 "
89 Tonga Islands, Pacific Ocean. Noted gale, 21 " 175 "
90 Trieste, Austria. Rash deer, 46 " 14 "
91 Venice, Italy. Roll of tin, 45 " 12 "

OTHER CITIES AND PLACES ON THE GLOBE.

1 Babylon, ancient city of Turkey in Europe. Mummy near, 33 N. 42 E.
2 Bagdad, city in Turkey. Memory of a hero, 33 " 44 W.
3 Bombay, city in British India. Top of a kite, 19 " 71 "
4 Candia, capital of the isle of Candia. Mellow knell, 35 " 25 "
5 Cape Comorin, south of Hindostan Boy in a cave, 9 " 78 "
6 Cape Farewell, south of Greenland. Chase a rogue, 60 " 47 "
7 Cape of Good Hope, south of Africa. Merry dove, 34 S. 18 "
8 Cape Guardafui, east of Africa. Time of the moon, 13 N. 52 "
9 Cape Lopatka, south of Kamschatka. Light dialogue, 51 " 157 "
10 Cape Pillar, south of Van Deiman's Land. Reared roof, 44 S.148 "
11 Cape St. Mary, south of Madagascar. New laurel, 25 " 45 "
12 Cape York, north of New Holland. Tidy trim, 11 " 143 "
13 Cape Zelania, north-east of Nova Zembla. Cake in a cage, 77 N. 76 "
14 Fejee Islands, Pacific Ocean. Tea or good coffee, 17 S.178 "
15 Juan Fernandez, island in the Pacific Ocean. A mere cap, 34 " 79 "
16 Monrovia, capital of Liberia, Western Africa. Joy on the tide, 6 N. 11 "
17 Maelstrom, a vortex near Norway Shove the tide, 68 " 11 "
18 Northeast Cape, north of Siberia. Coffee in hot houses, 78 " 100 "
19 Otaheite, Society Islands. Tall dahlias, 15 S.150 "
20 Owyhee, Sandwich Islands. Honest and loyal, 20 " 155 "
21 Petz Island, Southern Ocean. Shop boys, 69 " 90 W.
22 Pitcairn's Island, Pacific Ocean. Unholy themes, 25 " 130 "

———

LENGTH OF RIVERS.

The learner will memorize the length of rivers by connecting the indicating word with the names of the rivers in a sentence.

EXAMPLE.—On the banks of the Mississippi there are some beautiful ❊Roads, 4100.

On the shores of the Missouri can be seen the flocks of Snipes, 2900.

NORTH AMERICA.

1 Mississippi, ❊ Roads, 4100
2 Missouri, Snipes, 2900
3 Mackenzie, Nails, 2500
4 St. Lawrence, Nuns, 2200
5 Arkansas, Noses, 2000
6 Rio Grande, Doves, 1800
7 Columbia, Atlas, 1500
8 Red, Atlas, 1500

❊To each of the translations add one cypher. Example, ROADS, 4100-0.


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52 MEMORIA TECHNICA.

9 Ohio, Teams, 1300
10 Saskatchawan, Tones, 1200
11 Platte, Tones, 1200
12 Lewis, Tones, 1200
13 Kanzas, Dates, 1100
14 Yellowstone, Diseases, 1000
15 Canadian, Diseases, 1000
16 Churchill, Peas, 900
17 Tennessee, Peas, 900
18 Peace, Waves, 800
19 Colorado, Waves, 800
20 Frazers, Chase, 600
21 Utawas, Chase, 600
22 Clarks, Chase, 600
23 Semerone, Chase, 600
24 Brazos, Chase, 600
25 Cumberland, Chase, 600
26 Big Horn, Chase, 600
27 White, Chase, 600
28 Alabama, Chase, 600
29 Liards, Loss, 500
30 Albany, Loss, 500
31 Koksah, Loss, 500
32 East Main, Loss, 500
33 Red, Loss, 500
34 Gila, Loss, 500
35 Susquehanna, Loss, 500
36 Potomac, Loss, 500
37 Illinois, Loss, 500
38 Wabash, Loss, 500
39 Nesuketonga, Loss, 500
40 Washita, Loss, 500
41 James, Loss, 500
42 Roanoke, Loss, 500
43 Savannah, Loss, 500
44 Tombigbee, Loss, 500
45 St. John's, N. B. Roll, 450
46 Connecticut, Roll, 450
47 Great Pedee, Roll, 450
48 Des Moines, Roll, 450
49 Osage, Roll, 450
50 Clamet, Roll, 450
51 Great Whale, Rose, 400
52 Saguenay, Rose, 400
53 Grande, Rose, 400
54 Delaware, Rose, 400
55 Wisconsin, Rose, 400
56 Kanawha, Rose, 400
57 Altamaha, Rose, 400
58 Yazoo, Rose, 400
59 James, I. T., Rose, 400
60 St. Francis, Rose, 400
61 Wapticacoos, Rose, 400
62 Nelson, Mail, 350
63 Nueces, Mail, 350
64 Penobscot, Mail, 350
65 Hudson, Mail, 350
66 Alleghany, Mail, 350
67 Cape Fear, Mail, 350
68 Pearl, Mail, 350
69 Iowa, Mail, 350
70 Severn, Mouse, 300
71 Hay, Mouse, 300
72 St. Peter's, Mouse, 300
73 Kennebec, Mouse, 300
74 Monongahela, Mouse, 300
75 Rock, Mouse, 300
76 Kaskaskia, Mouse, 300
77 Green, Mouse, 300
78 Licking, Mouse, 300
79 Neuse, Mouse, 300
80 Big Black, Mouse, 300
81 St. John's, Fa., Nail, 250
82 Little Missouri, Nail, 250
83 Teton, Nail, 250
84 Merrimac, Nose, 200
85 Tar, Nose, 200
86 White, Nose, 200

SOUTH AMERICA.

1 Amazon, Matches, 3600
2 Rio de la Plata, Union or law, 2250
3 Madeira, No news, 2200
4 Parana, Debase, 1900
5 Oronoco, Atlas, 1500
6 Zingu, Times, 1300
7 St. Francisco, Times, 1300
8 Rio Negro, Eye witness, 1200
9 Ucayale, Eye witness, 1200
10 Para, Eye witness, 1200
11 Mamare, Eye witness, 1200
12 Caqueta, Dates, 1100
13 Tapajos, Dates, 1100
14 Tocantins, Dates, 1100
15 Araguay, Dates, 1100
16 Pilcomayo, Dates, 1100
17 Vermajo, Diseases, 1000
18 Colorado, Diseases, 1000
19 Magdalena, Base, 900
20 Tunguragua, Base, 900
21 Puras, Base, 900
22 Uaupes, Face, 800


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GEOGRAPHY. 53

23 Putumayo, Face, 800
24 Jurua, Face, 800
25 Parnaiba, Face, 800
26 Salado, Face, 800
27 Uruguay, Face, 800
28 Jutay, Keys, 700
29 Rio Negro, Keys, 700
30 Cauca, Chaise, 600
31 Meta, Chaise, 600
32 Guaviare, Chaise, 600
33 Arauca, Loss, 500
34 Haullaga, Loss, 500
35 Gurapy, Loss, 500
36 Guapore, Loss, 500
37 Paraiba, Rill, 450
38 Negro, Rice, 400
39 Saladillo, Rice, 400
40 Maroni, Mile, 350

EUROPE.

1 Volga, Noses, 2000
2 Danube, Duchess, 1600
3 Don, Diocese, 1000
4 Dnieper, Diocese, 1000
5 Rhine, Voice, 800
6 Dwina, Goose, 700
7 Petchora, Shoes, 600
8 Elbe, Shoes, 600
9 Vistula, Lily, 550
10 Tagus, Lily, 550
11 Dniester, Loss, 500
12 Loire, Loss, 500
13 Viatka, Roll, 450
14 Prypetz, Roll, 450
15 Donetz, Roll, 450
16 Odruth, Roll, 450
17 Douro, Roll, 450
18 Rhone, Roll, 450
19 Thesis, Roll, 450
20 Mezene, Horse, 400
21 Desna, Horse, 400
22 Bog, Horse, 400
23 Pruth, Horse, 400
24 Guadiana, Horse, 400
25 Po, Race, 400
26 Drave, Race, 400
27 Save, Race, 400
28 Onega, Maize, 300
29 Dahl, Maize, 300
30 Bug, Maize, 300
31 Wartha, Maize, 300
32 Weser, Maize, 300
33 Seine, Maize, 300
24 Garonne, Maize, 300
35 Guadalquiver, Maize, 300
36 Umea, Nail, 250
37 Tornea, Nail, 250
38 Kalix, Nail, 250
39 Glommen, Nail, 250
40 Clara, Nail, 250
41 Lulea, Nice, 200
42 Skelleftea, Nice, 200
43 Luisna, Nice, 200
44 Ems, ❊Thickly, 175
45 Indal, Dole, 150
46 Minho, Dole, 150
47 Tiber, Dole, 150

ASIA.

1 Yang-tse-kiang, Novice, 2800
2 Lena, Natchez, 2600
3 Obi, Sinless, 2500
4 Hoang Ho, Sinless, 2500
5 Yensei, Names, 2300
6 Amoor, No noise, 2200
7 Irtish, Noises, 2000
8 Cambodia, Noises, 2000
9 Indus, Tax, 1700
10 Irrawaddy, Tax, 1700
11 Ganges, Ditches, 1600
12 Tungooska, Toils, 1500
13 Burrampooter, Toils, 1500
14 Euphrates, Trees, 1400
15 Amoo, Disease, 1000
16 Songari, Disease, 1000
17 Indighirca, Bass, 900
18 Sutlege, Bass, 900
19 Salwen, Bass, 900
20 Ishim, Face, 800
21 Tigris, Face, 800
22 Nerbuddah, Face, 800
23 Meinam, Face, 800
24 Tobol, Geese, 700

❊ An exception to the rule,—no cypher to be added.


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☞—highest altitude in the world
"The On the heights of Khum ^ u laree"

Thibet, Asia
? the Himmalehs

54 MEMORIA TECHNICA.

25 Sihon, Geese, 700
26 Cashgar, Geese, 700
27 Hoang-kiang, Geese, 700
28 Kolima, Shoes, 600
29 Helmund, Shoes, 600
30 Godavery, Shoes, 600
31 Usuri, Loss, 500
32 Krishna, Loss, 500
33 Mahanuddy, Rail, 450
34 Attruck, Muse, 300

AFRICA.

1 Nile, Knives, 2800
2 Niger, Knives, 2800
3 Senegal, Tones, 1200
4 Orange, Disease, 1000
5 Abawi, Voice, 800
6 Gambia, Goose, 700
7 Taccaze, Choice, 600
8 Ambriz, Choice, 600
9 St. Paul's, Mass, 300

OCEANICA.

1 Murray, Disease, 1000

———

ALTITUDE OF MOUNTAINS, AND OTHER ELEVATIONS ON THE GLOBE

Feet, above the level of the sea.
1 On the heights of Chumularee, (highest in the world,) Thibet, one can take a Nap like an easy Swiss, 29,000
2 Sorato, highest in America—Bolivia. Nail up the muffs, 25,380
3 Highest flight of a balloon—France. Names in an ice-house, 23,000
4 Chimborazo—Equador. Neat to a rare hero, 21,444
5 Highest flight of a condor—South America. Wants of a Swiss, 21,000
6 Hindoo Koosh—Affghanistan. Anise in cheeses, 20,600
7 Highest spot ever trod by man—Equador. Deep recess, 19,400
8 Cotopaxi, highest volcano—Equador. Tough foe beat, 18,891
9 St. Elias, highest mountain in North America. Dig the basis, 17,900
10 Popocatapetl, highest in Mexico. Talk to excess, 17,700
11 Mouna Roa, highest in Oceanica—Hawaii. Talk of losses, 17,500
12 Brown, highest of Rocky Mountains—N. America. Audacious Swiss, 16,000
13 Mt. Blanc, highest in Europe—Italy. Dull shovel, 15,685
14 Limit of perpetual snow at the equator. Dull noises, 15,200
15 Volcano, Guatemala. Tales of the Swiss, 15,000
16 Antisana farm-house—Equador. Dear to the masses, 14,300
17 Demavend, highest of Elburz mountains—Persia. Dairy houses in use, 14,000
18 Mt. Ophir—Sumatra. Tame faces, 13,800
19 Limit of pines under the equator. Tawny faces, 12,800
20 City of La Paz—Bolivia. Tiny coaches, 12,760
21 Mt. Ararat—Armenia. Done to excess, 12,700
22 Miltsin, highest of Atlas mountains—Spain. Deny the lasses, 12,500
23 Peak of Teneriffe—Canaries. Tone of a tick watch, 12,176
24 Mulhacen, highest of Sierra Nivada—Spain. Taught vices, 11,800
25 Mt. Perdu, highest of Pyrenees—France. Detain in jail, 11,265
26 Mt. Ætna, Volcano—Sicily. Ideas of a palace, 10,950
27 Limit of oaks under the equator. Does less in a house, 10,500


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GEOGRAPHY. 55

28 Mt. Lebanon—Syria. Daisies of a size, 10,000
29 Ruska Poyana, highest of Carpathian—Austria. Pipe of tin, 9,912
30 City of Quito—Equador. Boyish mess, 9,630
31 St. Bernard convent—Switzerland. Face move, 8,038
32 Pendus, highest in Greece. Coyish quack, 7,677
33 City of Mexico—Mexico. Queer goose, 7,470
34 Black Mountain, highest of Blue Ridge—N. Carolina. Chair of a coach, 6,476
35 Mt. Washington, highest of White mountains—N. Hamp. Share of envy, 6,428
36 Mt. Marcy, in New York. Low muses, 5,300
37 Mt. Hecla, highest in Iceland. Rough fife, 4,888
38 Ben Nevis, highest in Great Britain—Scotland. Room in a cab, 4,379
39 Mansfield, highest of the Green Mountains. Run in a cab, 4,279
40 Peaks of Otter—Virginia, Ruin of ages, 4,260
41 Mt. Vesuvius, Volcano—Naples. Map of the moon, 3,932
42 Round Top, of the Catskill Mountains—New York. Miffy sire, 3,804
43 Snowdon, highest in South Britain—Wales. Meal and chaff, 3,568
44 Pyramids, highest work of man—Egypt. Whole pipe, 599
45 Mt. Corno, highest of Appenines, Naples. Pale nut, 9,521
46 Snegatta, highest of Dofrafield, Sweden. Fine houses, 8,200
47 Mt. Sinai—Arabia. Fit to shave, 8,168

———

EXTENT OF COUNTRIES IN SQUARE MILES.

NORTH AMERICA.

square miles
Russian America, have met with Losses,❊ 500,000
Greenland, Furs, 840,000
British America, Snow and mighty ice, 2,310,000
United States, Notch in a new house, 2,620,000
Mexico and Yucatan, Tame vice, 1,380,000
Guatimala, Noses, 200,000
West Indies, Disease, 100,000
Gap in the lace, Total, 7,950,000

SOUTH AMERICA.

New Grenada, Release, 450,000
Venezuela, Ruins, 420,000
Equador, Novice, 280,000

❊ To each Translation, add three ciphers. Thus: LOSSES—500-000


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56 MEMORIA TECHNICA.

square miles
Guiana, Duchess, 160,000
Peru, Armies 430,000
Bolivia, Release, 450,000
Chili, Tax, 170,000
Brazil, Mumps, 3,390,000
Buenos Ayres, Glass, 750,000
Paraguay Fife, 88,000
Uraguay, Pony, 92,000
Patagonia, Mix, 370,000
To be Causeless, Total, 7,050,000

EUROPE.

Sweden and Norway, Winnipeg, 297,000
Russia and Poland, Duck with a lily, 1,755,000
Denmark, Union, 22,000
Holland, Tide, 11,000
Belgium, Dome, 13,000
Great Britain and Ireland, Dainty, 121,000
France, No sale, 205,000
Spain, Defame, 183,000
Portugal, Mob, 39,000
Prussia, Desk, 107,000
Austria, New help, 259,000
Smaller German States, Dozen, 102,000
Switzerland Tell, 15,000
Italy, Athenian, 122,000
Ionian Islands, Day, 1,000
Greece, Indies, 210,000
Turkey, Nosegay, 207,000
Homage of a fop, Total, 3,689,000

ASIA.

Asiatic Russia, Whole masses, 5,300,000
Independent Tartary, Gipsy, 690,000
Turkey, Muck house, 370,000
Syria and Palestine, Jewess, 60,000
Arabia, Papacy, 990,000
Persia, Rocks, 470,000
Affghanistan, Mercy, 340,000
Beloochistan, Noses, 200,000
Hindoostan, Dunces, 1,200,000
Eastern or Chin India, Happiness, 920,000
Chinese Empire, Alliances, 5,200,000
Japan, Natchez, 260,000
Dutch icehouses, Total, 16,000,000


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GEOGRAPHY. 57

AFRICA.

square miles
Barbary, Lakes, 570,000
Egypt, Device, 180,000
Nubia Immense, 320,000
Abyssinia, Novice, 280,000
Great Desert, Notch of an icehouse, 2,600,000
Soudan, Dunces, 1,200,000
Bergoo, Darfor, &c., Low heroes, 540,000
Senegambia, Homeless, 350,000
Upper Guinea Novice, 280,000
Lower Guinea, Notch of ice, 260,000
Southern Africa, Refuse, 480,000
Eastern Africa, Cheeses, 600,000
Ethiopia, Mighty mass, 3,130,000
African Islands, New dice, 210,000
Die of diseases, Total, 11,000,000

———

DIRECTIONS TO THE LEARNER.

As, in the preceding Sections, all the indicating phrases relating to one State, on the following page, should be joined to the name of the State, by constructing a sentence.

EXAMPLES.

In Maine were many roses found in a Dutch mass, where they continued still to talk.

In New Hampshire they were made to weep over losses, not about a Dutch name, unless a hero.

———

To avoid mistake in assigning the right number of figures to the members which each state sends to Congress, the symbol which corresponds to the number should be located in those States which send more than can be expressed by one figure.

EXAMPLES.

Massachusetts, Kentucky, and Indiana, each send 10 members. The Dozing chair should be located in each of them.

Ohio sends 21 members, in which should be located the Noted bear.



8


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58


SQUARE MILES AND SETTLEMENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

States. Square miles. When Settled. State and U.S. Representatives.
1 Florida. Slyish and mummish, 56,336 Tall jail, 1565 Day. 1
2 Virginia. Jail cases, 65,700 Tie on a watch-house key, 1607 Admire the toil, ❊134 †15
3 New York. Rash annoyance, 46,220 Dish water, 1614 A tiny foe in the mire, 128 34
4 Massachusetts. Weak voices, 7,800 Toyish noise, 1620 Militia days, 356 10
5 New Hampshire. Weep over losses, 9,500 Dutch name, 1623 Unless a hero, 250 4
6 New Jersey. Coopers' fee, 7,948 Addition of an hour, 1624 Joyously, 60 5
7 Delaware. Noisy chief, 2,068 Teach a nag, 1627 Noted, 21 1
8 Maine. Many roses, 32,400 Dutch mass, 1630 Still to talk, 151 7
9 Connecticut. Rake or fop, 4,789 Dutch mummy, 1633 Neat lawyer, 215 4
10 Maryland. Daisy, oak, and lily, 10,755 Dodge the mire, 1634 Gave a shoe, 78 6
11 Rhode Island. Deny a lady, 1,251 Teach much, 1636 Cannon, 72 2
12 North Carolina. Light of a watchman, 51,632 Stageless, 1650 Witness of a boy, 120 9
13 South Carolina. Middle of July, 31,565 Whitish wax, 1670 Tiny rake, 124 7
14 Michigan. Cheese from a lame cow, 60,537 Touch the cause, 1670 Alarm, 54 3
15 Pennsylvania. Rich noddle, 46,215 Dutch fan, 1682 Hot seasoner, 100 24
16 Illinois. Eulogy on a holy sage, 56,506 Stitch of fame, 1683 Poetic, 91 7
17 Arkansas. Large dog, 54,617 Dutch flee, 1685 Jew shot, 66 1
18 Indiana. Small change, 35,626 Witty chaps, 1690 Diseased so, 100 10
19 Louisiana. Require time, 47,413 Teach a baby, 1699 Choice hero, 60 4
20 Alabama. Lower sphere, 54,084 Tax for wine, 1702 Dies sick, 100 7
21 Mississippi. Rob the militia, 49,356 Talk Dutch, 1716 Battery, 91 4
22 Vermont. Happy kisses, 9,700 Thick nail, 1725 Enemy in the mire, 233 4
23 Georgia. Shout of joy for fame, 61,683 Duck a mummy, 1733 New skiff, 207 8
24 Missouri. Excess of lies, 70,050 Take a chum, 1763 Repeal, 49 5
25 Tennessee. Rude colony, 41,752 Took the lash, 1756 Call of duty, 75 11
26 Kentucky. Raises the enemy, 40,023 Duck and an eagle, 1755 Doses and dies, 100 10
27 Ohio. Worse losses, 40,500 Dog and fife, 1788 Gone in the night, 72 21
28 Dist. of Columbia. Disuse, 100
29 Texas. Minus of sizes, 320,000 Tough name, 1823 Judge now, 66 2
30 Wisconsin. Pony on pumice, 92,930
31 Iowa. Dog and muck fish, 173,786

❊Number of Representatives sent to the State Legislature.

†Number sent to Congress—Each State sends two Senators, and has as many Electors as there are members in both houses of Congress. Rhode Island sends two Representatives to Congress, two Senators, and has four Electors.


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DIFFERENCES OF TIME.

When it is noon in Paris, most of the good people of New York are enjoying their morning dreams, it being, as is seen by the above table, just after 5 A.M. When it is noon in New York, in China it is near one o'clock to-morrow morning. When our working-men are eating their dinners, those of St. Petersburg are taking their evening meal, the clocks of that imperial city indicating the hour of 7 P.M. The clocks of Vienna are just six hours faster than ours. At all places east of New York, of course, the time is more or less faster. The difference between this city and Boston is about twelve minutes and a half. All places to the westward of us have slower time. At Charleston it still lacks about twenty-three minutes of noon. At San Francisco the business day has hardly commenced, the time-pieces there indicating 8 h. 45 m. A.M. A telegraphic message sent from New York at 12 M. Would reach the metropolis of California at a quarter before nine in the morning!

Our young readers who are studying geography and astronomy will find it a pleasant and useful recreation to trace out, with a map of the world before them, the interesting facts which this "Clock of All Nations" reveals and suggests, making an application of them to other places of different longitudinal situations.

We give below a table showing differences in time between the principal cities in the United States. To find this difference—say the difference between New York and St. Louis—look for New York in the column of names on the side, and for St. Louis on the top. Follow the line of figures opposite each one until they intersect at 65, which is the difference in time in minutes. The traveler from east to west will find his watch continually getting fast; but when he returns, it will get slow. With the following table in his pocket, he can know the correct time of the place he is at, without constantly changing his watch.


[FIGURE: A table showing the difference in time between U.S. cities.]


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88 LIFE ILLUSTRAT[illegible]



[FIGURE: This figure is captioned: "PARISIAN ELECTRICAL CLOCK."]


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SHIP BUILDING.

The art is attributed to the Egyptians, as the first inventors, the first ship, probably a galley, being brought from Egypt to Greece, by Danaus, 1485 B.C.—Blair.

The first double-decked ship was built by the Tyrians, 786 B.C.—Lenglet.

The first double-decked one built in England was of 1,000 tons burden by order of Henry Vii., 1509; it was called the Great Harry and cost $70,000—Stow.

Before this time, 24-gun ships were the largest in our navy, and these had no port-holes, the guns being on the upper decks only. Port-holes and other improvements were invented by Descharges, a French builder in Brest, in the reign of Louis XII., about 1500. Ship-building was treated as a science by Hoste, 1696. A 74 gun ship was put upon the stocks at Van Dieman's Land, to be sheathed with India-rubber, 1829.


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TIN.

The Phœnicians traded with England for this article for more than 1,100 years before the Christian era. It is said that this trade first gave them commercial importance in the ancient world. Under the Saxons, our tin mines appear to have been neglected; but after the coming in of the Normans, they produced considerable revenues to the Earls of Cornwall, particularly to Richard, brother of Henry III.; a charter and various immunities were granted by Edmund, Earl Richard's brother, who also framed the stannary laws, laying a duty on the tin, payable to the Earls of Cornwall. Edward III. confirmed the tinners in their privileges, and erected Cornwall into a dukedom, with which he invested his son, Edward the Black Prince—1337. Since that time, the heirs-apparent to the crown of England, if eldest sons, have enjoyed it successively. Tin mines were discovered in Germany, which lessened the value of those in England, till then the only tin mines in Europe, A.D. 1240.—Anderson.

Discovered in Barbary 1640; in India, 1740; in New Spain 1782. We export, at present, on an average, 1500 tons of unwrought tin, besides manufactured tin and tin plates of the value of about $2,000,000.


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—Says a scientific writer: "To obtain some idea of the immensity of the Creator's works, let us look through Lord Ross' telescope, and we discover a star in the infinite depths of space whose light is 3,500,000 years in traversing to our earth, moving at the velocity of twelve millions of miles in a minute. And behold God was there."


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TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH.—Scientific investigations have been made concerning the temperature of the interior of the earth. The existence of hot-water springs, and the recurrence of volcanic eruptions, have always pointed at a certain fact. Now it is well established that the effect of the sun's rays does not penetrate more than fifty feet. After that, the temperature, which has been, so far, regularly diminishing, increases at the rate of about one degree, Fahr. for every fifteen yards of descent. Then water must be wholly converted into steam at a depth of two miles; lead must melt at a depth of six miles; gold, at a depth of twenty miles; cast-iron, at a depth of about twenty-five miles; and at a depth of less than fifty miles, the very rocks must be in a state of fusion, or like flowing lava. The solid crust of the earth, by this calculation, is only one-hundred and sixtieth part of its diameter; and bears about the same relation thereto, as the shell of an egg bears to its bulk!


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———

Weekly Report of Deaths,
In the city and country of New York, from the 27th day of September to the 4th day of October, 1856. Men, 68; women, 56; boys, 138; girls 127—total, 389. Adults, 124; children, 265; males, 206; females, 183; colored persons, 4.

DISEASES.

Abscess, of the hip 1
Albuminaria, and Bright's disease of kidneys 1
Aneurism 1
Apoplexy 4
Asthma 1
Bleeding from navel 1
Bleeding from womb 2
Bronchitis 5
Burned or scalded 5
Cancer 1
Cancer of the womb 1
Casualties by falls 2
Casualty by jumping from a wagon 1
Casualty by overdose of medicine 1
Cholera infantum 30
Cholera morbus 1
Colic 2
Concussion of the brain 1
Congestion of brain 7
Congestion of liver 1
Congestion of lungs 2
Consumption 52
Convulsions, infantile 1
Convulsions, puerperal 1
Croup 10
Debility, adult 1
Debility, infantile 12
Delirium tremens 3
Diarrhœa 16
Dropsy 3
Dropsy in the chest 1
Dropsy in the head 14
Drowned 5
Dysentery 12
Erysipelas 1
Fever, bilious 1
Fever, hectic 1
Fever, nervous 1
Fever, Panama or Chagres 1
Fever, puerperal 1
Fever, remittent 4
Fever, scarlet 6
Fever, typhoid 3
Fever, typhus 2
Fever, yellow 1
Fungus, bleeding 1
Gravel 1
Heart, disease of 3
Heart, disease of, valvular 1
Hooping cough 8
Inflammation of bowels 9
Inflammation of brain 8
Inflammation of heart 1
Inflammation of lungs 5
Inflammation of stomach 1
Inflammation of throat 1
Inflammation of womb 1
Intemperance 1
Jaundice 4
Liver, disease of 2
Malformation 1
Malformation of anus 1
Malformation of heart 1
Marasmus, infantile 39
Measles 2
Palsy 2
Poison, by laudanum 1
Perforation of stomach 1
Premature birth 5
Retention of urine 1
Rheumatism 1
Scrofula 2
Scurvy 1
Smallpox 4
Softening of stomach 1
Spine, disease of 2
Stillborn 29
Teething 5
Tumor, of maxillary bones 1
Ulceration of the bowels 1
Ulceration of the spine 1
Ulceration of the stomach 1
Unknown to the jury 1
Worms 1
Total 389


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Col. WHITTLESEY followed with a paper "On the origin of anthracite and bituminous coal."

He said he had been cautioned against expressing his views on this topic, since all geologists concur now on the opinion of the vegetable origin of coal. For twenty years he has doubted this theory; his conviction is still that coal has a mineral origin, just as are the shales of the same series, and it is only a question of prudence and policy whether to present these views to a scientific body. Although all geologists agree that coal is vegetable matter carbonized, they differ entirely as to the mode of this carbonization. He goes further, and offers an entirely different theory; and this he ventures to present as a point still open to discussion, as admitted by Hopkins in England, by the naturalists of France, and by Prof. St. John of our own country. It is admitted that carbon is of mineral origin, is found everywhere, in all kinds of rocks. Now, if this carbon be segregated and reduced to a solid form, it is either coal or diamond. The question, then is reduced to one of the separation of carbon from the rocks or other substances containing it. Col. W. thinks the same difficulty is in the way of the segregation of this carbon, even if we adopt the usual theory of a vegetable origin of coal, anthracite being mostly carbon, and with hardly any traces of vegetable matter.

It is generally supposed that bituminous coal cannot have a mineral origin; the speaker could not see how it could have a vegetable one. That carbon enough existed originally for the production of the coal beds, he inferred from the fact that of sixty-eight bituminous springs—omitting all such springs and deposits as he could not refer to their proper geological strata—thirty-one are below the coal formation, and from strata in which no traces of vegetable organization have been found, while the abundant vegetation which must have obtained to form coal-beds only occurs above the carboniferous series. Are we warranted in supposing its existence at a former period?

He had examined many lignites which are the commonly-quoted examples of wood in process of transformation into coal, but had found no traces of bitumen, while that substance forms from 10 to 70 per cent of many rocks which he named. This substance is found in rocks more remote than the Silurian, so old, even, as the Azoic period. He argued his points at some length, and concluded that, in his opinion, it would be well to admit that bitumen, so far from being of vegetable origin. was one of the original constituents of the rocks, and existed previous to all vegetable organic matter; and carbon, the principal constituent of all bitumens and coals, is everywhere found. As to coal beds, in respect to their formation, he places


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them in precisely the same category as the st[illegible] which they occur, though without pretending t[illegible]how it was done, and considers bitumen and co[illegible]rocks formed, precisely like other rocks, from [illegible] existing materials.

T. S. HUNT denied Col. W's theory on chem[illegible] grounds, and argued that bitumen itself must ha[illegible] had a vegetable origin. But suppose there were [illegible] the older epochs no vegetable supply of carbon equ[illegible] to the formation of coal beds, still we have remains [illegible] animals which chemical analysis prove to have been able to furnish it.

Several gentlemen continued the discussion.

Col. WHITTLESEY remarked, in closing, that he was perfectly well satisfied with his theory, and of all the objections to it brought forward none were new to him, and had he time he could give answers which to himself were satisfactory. To the statement that we get no carbon but from plants, he opposed the question, where did the plants get it? As to remains of wood and plants in coal, he considers them in such cases bitumenized, just as in silicious rocks similar remains are silicified. If all the vegetables which ever grew were cut off from all communication w[illegible] everything else we should not get carbon enough [illegible] a single coal bed. As to the analogies which[illegible] have mentioned between peat beds and those of [illegible]here was a fatal difference—peat is formed [illegible] kinds of rocks, coal in but a single system.[illegible]


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LECTURES BY MR. OSCANYAN.

———

To _____________

GENTLEMEN:

The undersigned begs to state that Mr. OSCANYAN, the Oriental Lecturer, will accept invitations to lecture, which Literary Societies may extend to him for the coming season.

His subjects are:

  • I. TURKEY AND HER INSTITUTIONS, Political and Social—Courts and Bazaars—Sublime Porte and Seraglio—Lunatic Asylum and Mosques—Mussulman Religion and Worship, with practical illustrations, genuflexions, and the musical chant of the Muezzin from the Minaré, &c., &c.
  • II. ORIENTAL MEN AND MANNERS, with a sketch of the "Sick Man" himself.
  • III. THE WOMEN OF THE EAST AND THEIR CONDITION—Domestic institutions and relation of the Sexes—In and Out Door Life—Slavery, Marriage, Divorce, &c.
  • IV. THE CHRISTIANS OF TURKEY; or, "THE EASTERN QUESTIONS."

Mr. OSCANYAN delivers his Lectures in appropriate and illustrative Costumes, &c.

———

TERMS.

For a Single Lecture, $60
Or, for the Course, 200

———

Mr. OSCANYAN has gained an extensive and favorable reputation for himself as a popular Lecturer; yet, for the satisfaction of the various Lecture Committees, the undersigned takes the liberty to refer to the many distinguished literary gentlemen who have furnished him with testimonials, and also to the unqualified approbation of the public Press.

Communications may be addressed to Mr. OSCANYAN personally, at No. 37 Lafayette Place, New York, as early in the season as possible, to enable him to make his arrangements accordingly.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, yours, respectfully,

WM. JAY HASKETT,

Office, 15 Centre Street, New York.


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BUFFALO, New York, February 1, 1860.

SIR:

Your note of the 30th ult. has this moment come to hand, and I hasten to inform you that I had the pleasure of listening to your Lecture on Turkey, recently delivered in this city, and, I am happy to add, that to me it was exceedingly interesting and instructive; and I regretted to learn soon after, that you had abandoned the idea of continuing your Lectures, and had left the city. Should you visit us again, I hope to hear further, and, in the mean time,

I am truly yours,

MILLARD FILLMORE

Mr. C. OSCANYAN.

NEW YORK, November 24, 1856

We take pleasure in stating that we believe the Lectures of Mr. OSCANYAN, upon his native country, its institutions, and society, will be both interesting and instructive to the American public.

  • WASHINGTON IRVING,
  • WILLIAM C. BRYANT,
  • GEORGE BANCROFT,
  • HENRY T. TUCKERMAN,
  • GEORGE WM. CURTIS,
  • J. HOSFORD SMITH, Ott. Consul.

NEW YORK, December 8, 1857

TO THE LORD BISHOP OF TORONTO, C. W.:

MY LORD:

I have the pleasure of introducing an old college pupil of mine—Mr. C. OSCANYAN—a very accomplished gentleman of Oriental birth and Western education.

He proposes to deliver some Lectures on his native country at Toronto, which he has delivered in New York and elsewhere, and which, having myself heard, I am able to speak of as very finished and entertaining.

Mr. OSCANYAN's long residence at Constantinople, in the most intimate relations with the Government, the Foreign Embassies, and the best native and Frank Society, has given him extraordinary facilities for obtaining minute and accurate information.

If your lordship would have the kindness to mention him favorably, to such of your friends as you may happen to meet after his arrival, you would greatly oblige,

Yours very sincerely,

CHARLES W. HACKLEY, Columbia College.

TORONTO, February 26, 1857

From the high character of Professor Hackley, who has been long known to me, I believe full confidence may be placed in his letter which speaks so favorably, and I believe, truthfully, of Mr. C. OSCANYAN.

JOHN TORONTO.

Extract of a letter from Thomas Montgomery, Esq., of Rochester, to a friend in New York:

* * * "In reference to the state of sentiment here towards Mr. OSCANYAN, there has been but one expression from all those I have met who heard him. They were not only gratified, please, but 'delighted.' They are enthusiastic.

"Mr. Humphrey, Chairman of the Athenæum Lecture Committee tells me that Mr. Lansing, also a member of that Commttee, called on him the next morning, after hearing Mr. OSCANYAN's Lecture, and said he was delighted, that they must have him before the Athenæum, etc.

"From all other sources I hear the same eulogiums." * * *

At the conclusion of Mr. OSCANYAN's last course of Lectures on Turkey and her institutions, political, social, moral and religious, at Clinton Hall, on motion of Prof. Hackley, of Columbia College, Rev. Dr. Mathews was called to the chair. On taking it, he made a few remarks expressive of his pleasure and approbation of the lectures. Then Prof. Hackley presented the following resolutions:

Resolved, That the thanks of the audience be presented to Mr. OSCANYAN for his most instructive and entertaining course of Lectures upon Turkey.

Resolved, That Mr. OSCANYAN be requested to repeat the Course, in order that the pleasure it has afforded may be shared by a larger number of our fellow citizens.

—The New York Herald

Mr. OSCANYAN, the recent Lecturer on Turkey:

SIR:

The undersigned, some of whom were so happy as to hear your Course of Lectures on Turkey, and others who were so unfortunate as not to enjoy that pleasure, unite in the earnest request that you would repeat it. Many of the public, like some of themselves, not having been sufficiently apprised of the treat that was in store for them, they doubt not will be glad to avail themselves of the opportunity to repair their loss, which will be afforded by the repetition.

Very truly yours,

  • CHARLES W. HACKLEY,
  • J. M. MATHEWS,
  • BENJ. N. MARTIN,
  • W. H. LEVISON,
  • HIRAM BARNEY,
  • HOWARD CROSBY,
  • ISAAC FERRIS,
  • JAMES WHITMAN,
  • JOHN I. OWENS,
  • HORACE WEBSTER,
  • HORACE GREELEY,
  • FREDERIC HUDSON,
  • WM. A BOOTH,
  • GEO. L. PRETISS,
  • THOS. H. SKINNER, JR.,
  • WILSON G. HUNT,
  • E. WAINWRIGHT,
  • J. N. BRADLEY,
  • E. H. CHAPIN,
  • ERASTUS BROOKS,
  • GEO. BUSH,
  • H. FULLER,
  • BAYARD TAYLOR,
  • HENRY J. RAYMOND.

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MR. OSCANYAN, the Lecturer on Turkey.

SIR:

The undersigned are most desirous that your Lectures, which have excited great interest in the City of New York, should be delivered also in Brooklyn.

Events now are passing in the East, pregnant with might results to humanity at large; but, in order to understand their full importance, we will need a more intimate acquaintance with Oriental institutions—both social and political. We hope, therefore, that you will deliver the Course in our City at your earliest convenience.

Very truly yours,

  • CHANDLER STARR,
  • A. CRITTENDEN,
  • A. COOKE HULL,
  • J. H. RAYMOND,
  • BENJ. D. SILLIMAN,
  • B. W. DWIGHT,
  • ARTHUR W. BENSON,
  • EDWARD A. LAMBERT,
  • ISAAC H. FROTHINGHAM,
  • ALFRED GREENLEAF,
  • ANDREW A. SMITH,
  • C. DUNNING,
  • GEO. W. W. BETHUNE,
  • H. W. BEECHER,
  • GEORGE BUSH,
  • FREDK. A. FARLEY,
  • B. F. BARRETT,
  • DAVID M. STONE,
  • GEO. A. JARVIS,
  • GEORGE HALL,
  • J. C. SMITH,
  • RODMAN B. DAWSON,
  • CONKLIN BRUSH,
  • JAS. L. SMITH.
———

He appeared on the platform in the full costume of a Turk of the working class, bearing in his hand a lantern with a lighted candle in it, explaining it to be the dress worn by carpenters, boatmen, hostlers, servants, &c., illuminating his own path, for the authorities of Constantinople provide no lights in the streets. He explained how the present costume differed from that of thirty years ago, and how Mahmoud, the father of the present Sultan of Turkey, made the innovation. That sovereign wished to raise an army on the European plan which would supplant the turbulent Janizaries; in order to carry out his idea fully, the reforming of the dress, by discarding long and loose garments, and adopting a suit to fit the body more closely was the first step to be taken. At the time of issuing the mandate, the Sultan at once appeared in the new costume; he was followed by his officials at the court, and it soon became the prevailing fashion, by the trading classes adopting it.

Mr. Oscanyan described in clear style the aspects of Constantinople and its vicinity, its people and bazaars, the Sublime Porte, the Mosques, Lunatic Asylum, Seraglio, and other objects of interest. His anecdotes, which were very well told, illustrated his points admirably. He said very little concerning those matters which have been ordinarily treated by travelers, but aimed to give information not easily within the reach of the tourist, especially of the worship of the Musselmen in the Mosque, which, we are all aware, it is morally impossible to be eye witness of—the Mohammedan believing in excluding infidels form his holy places.

The costume of the speaker has more than the charm of novelty in it; it is an actual assistance to the hearer in understanding and appreciating the object; it is to this lecture, what the black board or diagram is to the practical scientific lecture. We are convinced that whoever misses the opportunity of listening to Mr. Oscanyan, looses a rare chance of studying a chapter of Oriental Civilization. He speaks the English language fluently, and can be easily understood.—Union, Rochester, N. Y.

C. OSCANYAN.—The lecture of this gentleman at Sherburne on Wednesday evening, received, as it justly deserved, a crowded house. We were enabled to hear but a portion of it, and therefore took no notes of the same. Mr. OSCANYAN seems perfectly familiar with the history and peculiarities of his people, and his lecture abounded in amusing and instructing anecdotes and passages—practically illustrated by Mr. O., clothed in his oriental "regimentals." After the lecture we were honored, alike with our comrades, with an interview with the Oriental, which fully proved our former idea of his ability. He spoke much better English than three-fourths of our Yankee bred and born, and his knowledge of America and its people is remarkable. The Philomathians may well congratulate themselves on the success thus far attending their efforts in the lecture line.—The Literary Independent, Norwich, N. Y.

It is impossible to give even a good report of such a very unique and interesting lecture. Delivered in distinct and concise language, and illustrated by costume and action the whole was a living picture of the Osmanli—more impressive than any printed page can be. The recitation of the form of prayer, and the exhibition of the prostration (a rikah) was an epitome, almost, of the daily life of a Mohammedan, who washes and prays five times every day. There were many bits of social life portrayed in jokes and witticisms which we have not time nor space to repeat; but can only say that they must always please by their aptness in illustrating the peculiar differences in national habits,—political, religious and social.—Daily Standard, Syracuse.

It is too late now to notice the lecture of Mr. Oscanyan at any length. As a just criterion of its merit, the fact that the audience thought it too short, when it was really near an hour and a half, is highly flattering to the lecturer. Dressed in Oriental costume, he affords a picturesque object of sight, and the matter of his lecture is best attested by the delight of his hearers, who did not become fatigued, in either body or mind, and rose from their seats thinking they had occupied them only twenty-five or thirty minutes, when in truth they had been seated over an hour and a half. We regard this the highest compliment that could be paid the matter of the lecture.—Com. Times, Oswego

Mr. Oscanyan's knowledge of the country and manners which he describes is unsurpassed by that of any other person on this continent, and the great command he has attained of the English language enables him to convey a vivid impression of persons and things to his audience. His proficiency in our language secured for him the appointment of interpreter to Mohammed Pasha, the Turkish Admiral, during his recent visit to this country.—N. Y. Herald.

Replete as Mr. O.'s lectures are with information, breathing the true spirit of the East—for he has lectured in our city eleven times—appearing as he does, in appropriate costumes, illustrative of his subject, and delivered in pure and elegant English, seasoned with amusing anecdotes, they cannot but please and delight the most fastidious audience.—Frank Leslie's Illustrated News, N. Y.

Mr. OSCANYAN, the eminent Orientalist, has accepted several engagements to lecture upon the "Social and Political Affairs of Turkey." No man in America is better fitted for such a task than Mr. OSCANYAN.—Evening Post, N. Y.

These Lectures embrace a mass of curious and valuable information in regard to the Turks and their public and private life, government, religion, trade, literature, and social institutions, which can not elsewhere be obtained.—Tribune, N. Y.

Mr. O. is the first native of Turkey ever educated in this country, and founded the first newspaper published in Constantinople. He is evidently a scholar and a gentleman of talent and refinement. His lecture was clothed in choice English, which was well pronounced, though with a slight accent, and proved highly acceptable to the largest audience that has been called out on a similar occasion in this place, for some time.—Ogdensburg Sentinel.


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SCENES ON THE OCEAN FLOOR.—Besides the countless varieties of the fucus, the bottom of the sea is overgrown with the curled, deep purple leaves of the sea-lettuce, with large porous lichens, and many branched hollow algæ, full of life and motion in their rosy little bladders, thickly set with ever moving tiny arms. These plants form submarine forests, growing one into another, in apparently lawless order: here interlacing their branches, there forming bowers and long avenues, at one time thriving abundantly, till the thicket seems impenetrable then again leaving large openings between wold and wold, where smaller plants form a beautiful pink turf. There a thousand hues and tinges shine and glitter in each changing light. In the indulgence of their luxurious growth, the fuci especially seem to gratify every whim and freak. Creeping close to the ground, or sending long-stretched arms, crowned with waving plumes, up to the blessed light of heaven, they form pale-green sea-groves where there is neither moon or star, or rise up nearer to the surface, to be transcendently rich and gorgeous in brightest green and purple. And, through this dream-like scene playing in all the colors of the rainbow, and deep under the hollow, briny ocean, there sail and chase each other merrily gaily-painted mollusks and bright shining fishes. Snails of every shape creep slowly along the stems, while huge, gray-haired seals hang with their enormous tusks on large, tall trees. There is a gigantic Dugong, the siren of the ancients, the side long shark with his leaden eyes, the thick-haired sea-leopard, and the sluggish turtle.. Look how these strange, ill-shapen forms, which ever keep their dreamless sleep far down in the gloomy deep, stir themselves from time to time! See how they drive each other from their rich pastures, how they seem to awaken in storms, rising like islands from beneath, and snorting through the angry spray! Perhaps they graze peacefully in the unbroken cool of the ocean's deep bed, when lo! a hungry shark comes slyly, silently around that grove; its glassy eyes shine ghost-like with a yellow sheen, and seek their prey. The sea dog first becomes aware of his dreaded enemy, and seeks refuge in the thickest recesses of the fungus forest. In an instant the whole scene changes. The oyster closes its shell with a clap, and throws itself into the deep below; the turtle conceals head and feet under her impenetrable armor, and sinks slowly downward; the playful little fish disappear in the branches of the marocystis; lobsters hide under the thick, clumsily shapen roots, and the young walrus alone turns boldly round, and faces the intruder with his sharp pointed teeth. The battle commences; both seek the forest; their flas become entangled in the closely interwoven branches; at last the more agile shark succeeds in wounding his adversary's side. Despairing of life, the bleeding walrus tries to conceal his last agony in the woods, but, blinded by pain and blood, he fastens himself among the branches, and soon falls an easy prey to the shark, who greedily devours him.—Putnam's Magazine.


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ORIGIN OF COAL.—Dr. David Dale Owen, in a recent lecture at Vincennes upon Agricultural Chemistry, incidentally alludes to the origin of coal. The Doctor is not a believer in the theory of the vegetable origin of coal, but, in the language of the Gazette, is an advocate of the more modern and rational idea that coal is the condensation or the solidification of the vast volumes of the carbonic gases that surrounded the world before the temperature of the earth and its atmosphere had been reduced to a condition to support animal life—into vegetables and woods and the condensation of them into those vast store-houses of fuel—or coal strata—for the future use of man, that prepared the earth first for the rougher animals, and finally for a habitation for man. This is undoubtedly the true theory, and most beautifully illustrates the beneficent providence of the Creator, who transformed the most fatal substance to man's existence in the early periods of the world, to be one of his chiefest blessings in the maturer ages of the earth, when man should be fitted for and need its use. And thus are all apparent evils upon earth made in His infinite providence, the basis of great good to this subjects of the Divine government. In reference to manuring, the Doctor remarked: "The idea of manuring land from the atmosphere was novel to some, who were surprised to learn that the ammonia deposited by the rain on each acre of land, in a year, was sufficient with is accessories to produce two tons of vegetable matter. This explained the difference between rain and irrigation to the plants. The importance of preserving the ammonia of manures, by covering them from the action of the air, and carrying the drainage from them into cisterns to be carried in a liquid over the land, was made very evident to the farmer."


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ARCTIC ADVENTURES BY SEA AND LAND. Edited by EPES SARGENT. 12 mo., pp. 480. Boston: Phillips, Sampson, & Co.

The commencement of Arctic exploration, according to Mr. Sargent, dates from an earlier period than is usually supposed. It seems to be established by the researches of northern antiquaries that Newfoundland, Greenland, and several parts of the American coast, were visited by the Scandinavians in the ninth and tenth centuries. Within two centuries from that time these daring sea-rovers made their way to the seventy-second degree of latitude, and set up stones with Runic inscriptions dated 1135 on the islands in Baffin's Bay where they were discovered in 1824. The colonists on the eastern coast of this bay kept up intercourse with Europe until 1406, when it was interrupted by the accumulation of ice. In the year 1380 voyagers from the south of Europe were attracted toward those dreary regions, and two Venetian navigators named Teni brought home accounts of what they had there seen, not knowing that the Scandinavians had preceded them by three centuries.

It was not till the reign of Henry VI., that the enterprise of British navigators was directed to a quarter in which they have since won such brilliant renown, although without achieving the main object of their ambition. In 1497, the younger Cabot landed at Labrador, eighteen months before Columbus saw the mainland of tropical America. In a further attempt to reach the pole, he sailed up to 67 ½° of north latitude. Sir Hugh Willoughby, Frobisher, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Davis, Hudson, and other English and Russian navigators, successively enlarged the limits of research until in 1743 the British Parliament offered a reward of twenty thousand pounds to any any one who should sail to the north-west by way of Hudson's Strait. After the ineffectual attempt to reach the North Pole by Capt. Phipps in 1773, and by Capt. Cook in 1776, there was a cessation of Arctic enterprises for many years; when in 1816 it was reported by the Greenland whalers that the sea was clearer of ice than any former time within their knowledge. This gave a new impulse to the spirit of research, and in 1818 the first expedition of Ross and Parry was dispatched for the discovery of the North-West Passage. At the same time, Buchan and Franklin were intrusted with the command of an expedition to the North Pole, and after almost incredible perils returned in the Autumn of the same year. In 1819 Capt. Parry sailed at the head of a new expedition, commencing the career of northern discovery, which has given such prominence to his name among modern navigators. From that time the progress of Arctic research has become familiar to most intelligent readers. It has been signalized by the spirit of adventure, the heroic courage and the wonderful power of endurance exhibited by the explorers, rather than by its positive results in the interests of science or of commerce. [illegible]


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J. R. C., Kenzer's Station, Pa.—As early as the middle of the seventeenth century there were short roads made of wooden rails, in and about Newcastle, England. These were called tram-ways, and were used for transporting coals short distances. In 1738 iron was used for rails, instead of wood, at Whitehaven, for short distances. The first considerable iron railroad was at Colebrook Dale, in 1786. The first extensive work of the kind is the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (by engines) which was opened in September, 1830.


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The first railway built in the United States was the Quincy and Boston, in 1827. It was used to convey granite for the Bunker Hill Monument. This was followed in 1835 by the Boston and Providence, Boston and Worcester, and Boston and Lowell. In 1836 the Utica and Schenectady Railway was opened. In 1837 the Baltimore and Wilmington, and Providence and Stonington went into operation. The Worcester and Springfield was completed in 1839, and in 1840 the Housatonic was added to the number.


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———

The Rosettat Stone—Letter from Humbodt.

The famous Rosetta Stone, the name of which is very widely known, and which has been seen by thousands in the Egyptian Gallery of the British Museum, was discovered by a French officer named BASSARD, in NAPOLEON's Egyptian campaign. Rosetta is at the mouth of the west branch of the Nile, to which it gives its name, and is distant about 36 miles from the better known seaport of Alexandria. The stone, a block of black Sienite, bears three inscriptions, one in Greek, another in hieroglyphics, and a third in the Demotic character, in which the dialect of the unlearned was then written. The Greek inscription was almost perfect, and showed that is purpose was to record a decree of the priests, appointing divine honors to be paid to PTOLEMY, EPIPHANES, son of PHILOPATOR. The grounds for the decree are stated clearly: The King had suppressed a rebellion, lightened taxes, and restored the priests and the affairs of religion to a much more important position than they had for a long time enjoyed. The date of the decree is determined, by reference to history, to have been about 196 B. C., when the King was some eight or ten years old, the glories ascribed to him being in reality due to his minister, ARISTOMENES. The value of the Greek, however, lay in affording a clear guide to the meaning of the other two inscriptions, since the decree was to be written in "Greek, in the language of the god, and in the language of the multitude." When the English power became victorious in Egypt, the Rosetta Stone was made one of the trophies, and brought to England, where it was in 1802 laid before the Society of Antiquaries. From that time many illustrious scholars, including PORSON, have studied the inscriptions; and the knowledge, both of the Hieroglyphic or sacred, and of the Demotic or common characters has been much increased in consequence. A plaster cast of the stone having been presented to the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania, in 1856, by Mr. T. K. CONRAD, that Association appointed Messrs. C. R. HALE, S. HUNTINGTON JONES and HENRY MORTON to draw up a report and make translations of the inscriptions. The result is before us. The book is not printed, but lithographed from their handwriting; which together with the profuse and admirable illustrations of Mr. MORTON, most of which represent Egyptian objects usages or places, gives the volume of an air of curious luxury. Mr. HALE edits the Greek text, gives a fac-simile of the Demotic, and translations of both; Mr. MORTON, with Mr. HALE, translates the Hieroglyphics, literally from the text in the Egyptian order, and also into the English grammatical construction; and Mr. JONES gives a compendious account of PTOLEMY EPHIPHANES, his guardians, and the state of Egyptian affairs during his reign.

We have gone carefully through the Greek text and the translations of it. Mr. HALE's translation is faithful, and his conjectural restorations are based upon the meaning given by the two Egyptian inscriptions. Of the translation of these latter we shall be excused from speaking, when it is remembered that a knowledge of Coptic is necessary for adequate criticism. We are sorry to notice that the Greek contains a considerable number of mistakes in spelling, and that the English is defaced in places in the same manner. This must be attributed solely to the whim of the authors for lithographing their writing; had they printed, they must have discovered the errors in the proof-sheets. We have the more regret in finding this slight defect, as the otherwise exquisite volume is so plainly a labor of love, and the intelligence and study brought to bear on their subject make it a tenfold pity that the authors should leave manuscript slips to be thus perpetuated.

The translation of the Demotic text is, we believe, the first complete one published; and the whole essay is the first thing of the kind ever issued in this country. The labor and judgment of Messrs. HALE & MORTON leads us to hope that they will investigate the subject more thoroughly, and become distinguished in a branch of study for which they evidently have strong inclination.


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A copy of this work was sent to Baron HUMBOLDT, and his letter of acknowledgement will be read with interest, especially as it was written within so short a time of his death. We transcribe it entire.

"I have received with a very lively interest the 'Report of the Committee of the Philomathean Society of the University of Philadelphia,' to translate the inscription on the Rosetta Stone, by the reunion of CHAS. R. HALE, HUNTINGTON JONES, and HENRY MORTON.

The scientific analysis of the celebrated inscription of Rosetta, which, despite the confusion of the hieroglyphic style, remains an historic monument of great importance, has appeared to me especially worthy of praise, since it offers the first essay at independent investigation offered by the literature of the New Continent. It is for this national relation that I especially greet this independent work. Little versed myself in this class of studies, I ought, however, to greet the so conscientious work of the learned Committee of the Philomathean Society, since the results now obtained contribute to prove the justice of the system of Champollion, to which my brother, WILLIAM VON HUMBOLDT, was the first to render justice in Germany. The picturesque ornaments added by Mr. HENRY MORTON, add to the interest inspired by a work well worthy to be widely spread in your learned and free country.

I pray Mr. CHARLES R. HALE to receive with kindness the homage of my sentiments of high and affectionate consideration. I have placed the book in the hands of Doctor BRUGSCH, who has already twice traveled through Egypt, and cleared up with sagacity, the geographical division of the ancient homes of Egypt.

Your humble and very obedient servant,

The Baron ALEXANDER DE HUMBOLDT. BERLIN, Saturday, March 12, 1859."


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———

Lecture of W. S. Studley.

The Rev. W. S. Studley delivered his lecture on Artisans and Artists at the Washington st. M. E. Church last night to a rather small audience.

The lecturer opened with a homily upon the fast tendencies of the age. This spirit of progressiveness carried to excess leads to superfiiciality; we do not wait to arrive at logical conclusions, to ascertain if we are right, before we go ahead, but keep on reckless of consequences. This spirit makes men reckless of wholesome re-restraint, and sometimes throws down the barriers that protect our social and moral welfare. Society has become so fast that we might seem to be lineal descendants of Jehu, and always driving. The result of this progressive spirit is to make men dissatisfied with the slow methods of obtaining a competency by honest industry, and brings labor into contempt. To labor for his means of livelihood is the natural condition of man, and idleness is sinful in the eyes of God. It was one of the greatest evidences of the elevation of the human race that strife among nations was now becoming manifest in the arts of peace rather than of war; in competition in the arts and sciences and commerce, a far better way of using men's brains than knocking them out with bullets and battle axes. Man by nature was a lazy animal, and needed constant stimulus to exertion. If their civilization is to be determined as a recent writer has said by the amount of iron a nation used, then the ancients would compare favorably with modern nations, for all their warlike and agricultural implements were of iron, and copper was used in greater abundance than it is now. But we have better evidence than this of the skill of ancient nations in the arts and sciences. Noah's Ark was the most perfect model of a ship ever built; the Tabernacle of the Jews, showed a skill in architecture never surpassed, while the Temple of Solomon, contained wonders of art, if we are to believe the descriptions handed down to us, never equalled. These attest the skill of the Hebrews in the useful and ornamental arts. Babylon derives much of its historical importance from the skill of its artists and artisans.


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Its walls, towers, palaces, terraces and hanging gardens were wonders of art; and so immense were the structures that several of the cities that now surround the site of ancient Babylon, were built from the stone taken from the ruins. Egypt had been called the cradle of the sciences, and her monuments of skill of her people remain yet to attest her claim. When the Jews were a wandering tribe, warring with the Canaanites the arts and sciences flourished in Egypt. Nor was it alone in architecture, sculpture and ornamental arts that the Egyptians were skilled in; glass, erroneously supposed to have been used only towards the end of the reign of Augustus, was made by the Egyptians 1600 or 1700 years before Christ. Specimens of their skill in its manufacture have been found, which shows that their glass blowers and cutters surpassed in skill those of the present day. Among the specimens was an obelisk of emerald glass, sixty feet high. The coloring shows that they had knowledge of chemicals, and particularly of the use and properties of the metallic oxides. Next to Egypt, Greece ranks as he seat of the arts and sciences. The early law givers gave every encouragement to industry in their enactments, and elevated labor and skill in the useful arts. The artists and artizans of Greece had done more towards achieving her historical eminence than all her statesmen, poets and orators. Rome devoted more attention to providing for the wants of the people. They built bridges and roads. Their roads have never been equalled; we have nothing to compare with them at the present day. The Appian way, part of which crossed the Pontine marshes, was described nine hundred years after it was built as being perfect, with no sign of wear or decay; part of this road is yet to be seen. The Romans however did not neglect the ornamental arts. Livy computed that the number of statues in Rome was equal to the number of people. The Coliseum remains yet as the greatest monument of the skill of their artists and artizans. Archimides by his inventive skill saved the Syracusans for three years from coming beneath the Roman yoke. He invented machines that hurled ponderous masses of stone on the besiegers, sunk their galleys, and if the Roman soldiers came close to the walls, they were grappled by hooks and raised up in the air and dashed to the earth again. Rhodes is indebted for its fame to the famed colossal statue of Apollo in bronze, which spanned one of the entrances to their harbor. The statue was 1[illegible]5 feet high, and it is computed contained 720,000 pounds of brass. Ephesus in like manner is famous for its Temple of Diana, which was 220 years in building. In like manner Tyre, Sidon, Cornith, Damascus and many other cities are famed for the works of their artizans and artists. The man who helps no matter how humbly, to perfect the arts and sciences, contributes to the greatness of his country; all the really great men of any country are those who aid its industrial progress. This has come to be recognised; labor is assuming its rightful position, the world demands that a man shall receive honor only for what he has done to improve the mental and moral condition of his fellow men. Among modern nations Germany had ranked first for her skill in the material arts and sciences, and a great number of useful inventions and discoveries came from Germany, among them the art of printing, the invention of clocks and optical instruments, &c. At the world's fair in London America at first made but a poor show among the exhibitors, and this was a subject for the taunts and sneers of the English journals, and foremost among them the London Times; but before the close of the exhibition the Times acknowledged that Great Britain had received more practical benefits and more useful knowledge from American skill than from all the rest of the world; the American invention of the "grain-cutter" alone would be worth more to England than the whole cost of the exhibition. At the world's fair at Paris, held more recently, Americans took the premiums for all the useful and really valuable inventions. These facts could not be looked upon without interest, as foreshadowing the destiny of the New World. The true elements of greatness were ours; already we had outstripped other nations in the exhibitions of skill in the arts and sciences, and our career had but just commenced. The skill of our countrymen in the arts and sciences had done more to make the American names respected abroad than all our victories by sea or land.

The lecturer was warmly applauded at the close.


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Margaret S. McKenzie


[FIGURE: Unidentifiable pencil sketch]

L'nom

M. S. McKenzie

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[FIGURE: Block letters of UNITED STATES OF AMERICA drawn in black ink inside pencilled banners]


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[FIGURE: This figure is captioned: "Picture of Nations or PERSPECTIVE SKETCH of the COURSE OF EMPIRE. To accompany WILLARD'S Universal History in Perspective."]


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McK

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[FIGURE: Conceptual-historical maps of the Judeo-Christian known world. This figure is captioned: "B. C. 1921"]


[FIGURE: Conceptual-historical maps of the Judeo-Christian known world. This figure is captioned: "B. C. 1491."]


[FIGURE: Conceptual-historical maps of the Judeo-Christian known world. This figure is captioned: "B. C. 980."]


[FIGURE: Conceptual-historical maps of the Judeo-Christian known world. This figure is captioned: "B. C. 752."]


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[FIGURE: This figure is captioned: "B. C. 323."]


[FIGURE: This figure is captioned: "CHRISTIAN ERA"]


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[FIGURE: Ink marks and the word "Horace" written inside a box]


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[FIGURE: Ink marks and a few cursive words written in pen.]


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[FIGURE: A map of what is present-day Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and the northern portion of Africa. This figure is captioned: "A. D. 395"]


[FIGURE: A map of what is present-day Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and the northern portion of Africa. This figure is captioned: "A.D. 1100"]


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[FIGURE: A map of what is present-day Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. This figure is captioned: "A.D. 1492"]


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[FIGURE: Map of the World. This two-page spread shows a map of the Earth in a Mercator projection. Parts of the continents are colored in. Whitman added handwriting to this map, as well, adding "Australia" and "Tasmania". He also circled something small over the "O" in "Western Ocean."]


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McKenzie


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THE LECTURE SEASON.

———

Physiology of the Earth,

———

THIRD AND CONCLUDING LECTURE OF DR. DOREMUS.

Dr. Doremus delivered his concluding lecture on the physiology of the earth, at the Institute last evening. The previous lectures were devoted to an explanation of the relationship between the earth and the other members of our solar system, and also of the different elements of our globe to each other. The lecture last evening was on the relationship between these elements and animal life, including the high nature of man. First the atmosphere was explained and the proportion of its constituents; four-fifths being Nitrogen, which is only useful to dilate the Oxygen, which makes up one-fifth of the atmosphere. The other constituent is Carbonic Acid, of which there is about one to four parts in every ten thousand. It is essential to the life of plants.

It was only within a century that the nature of the atmosphere had been discovered by Priestly. It was formerly believed that man had the power of resisting decomposing forces while he lived, but when he died they had full power over his frame; while the fact is that the frame is being dissolued by every respiration into aeriform matter; the waste being supplied by food and air. The lecturer then referred to the primitive atmosphere of the earth when the gigantic growths of vegetation took place which have since become coal, and how they absorbed the excess of carbon and rendered the earth fit for the habitation of man. The necessity of a nice adjustment of the constituents of the atmosphere to human life, and the fatal consequences of an excess of carbon were fearfully exemplified in the Black Hole of Calcutta, where 140 or 150 people were confined in the same room for a night and all died except 30, who soon after died of disease.

The rain washed down the carbonic acid and ammonia and other matters which were in the atmosphere, (where they would be injurious to life if present in any great quantities,) to the plants which they fed. The importance of water was recognised by the Greeks who called it the Oinon Catholicon or universal wine. It has dissolvent powers upon which our life, in a great degree depends. We know that our bones are similar in the matter they are composed of to the rocks, and this happens by the water dissolving portions of these rocks and in that dilucent condition it enters the system. The rocks are all metallic, but they do not occur in a purely metallic state, but as oxides, or in combination with acids, as salts. If they were in the pure metallic state they would be almost useless; for a mass of copper on the shore of Lake Superior of 40 feet long, 30 high and 8 deep, was many years ago pronounced useless, because it could only be reduced to small quantities by chipping it with chisels or cutting instruments, and the labor would exceed its value.

But as oxides they can be easily fused and moulded into any form. The lecturer then proceeded to show the influence of heat and light on vegetation: plants at the pole, where the sun shines continually for months, the flowers bud and blossom, and produce fruit in two or three weeks; while in the temperate latitudes they require as many months. In the equitorial regions there is the highest development of vegetable and animal life, but the lowest standard of intellect and morals. Plants are limited to particular zones, some blooming only at the north, others only in the tropics, and others in the


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temperate zones; and so of animals; but man can adapt himself to any latitude. The highest order of animals, those which imitate man's actions, such as the orang outang, the chimpanzee or monkey, never attempt to handle fire.

The sun, as the great dispenser of light and heat, was adored by the ancients. The earth is not always the same distance from the sun; but as laid down in the law of Kepler, it revolves around the sun in an ellipse, and we are sometimes three millions of miles nearer the sun than at other times. Why the earth is not warmer when nearest the sun is explained by several interesting phenomena, to wit: the great portion of the land on the earth's surface being crowded to the north, and the land absorbes more heat during the day, and radiates more at night than the water; it heats and cools more readily; and this accounts also for the fact that the interior of a country is more under the extremes of heat and cold than the seabord: and also the more rapid revolution of the earth, while near the sun.

We cannot follow the lecturer through his interesting illustrations, in which the effect of climate on the human race was depicted; the first or hunter condition being the lowest developement and society, then the shepherd nomadic life, then as the tribes migrated to the south, the agricultural phase; followed by commerce and succeeded by enervating luxury; until new inroads of hardy barbarians from the north which inforced vigor into countries they devastated. The earth seemed to have been formed for the westward march of civilization; the descent of the Asiatic tribes to Europe, and their final transfer to America, whose geography seemed to demand its settlement by Europeans. Had the Andes and Rocky Mountains been placed along the Atlantic shore then we should have to look to China for settlers.

The physical geography of this country emphatically declares that it is intended for one people. If we could root up the Andes and Rocky Mountains and plant them east and west, then we might talk of a northern and southern nation. He then reviewed the effect of climate and geography on man's spiritual nature; the tribes inhabiting prolific regions demanding a visible physical god; then the Greeks and Romans coming up to the conception of intellectual gods; and finally the Christian world acknowledging a god not only of power but of love, not only to be regarded with fear, but with affection.

———

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H. M.—Coral reefs or islands are the production of very small animals, called animalculæ. The greatest depth of the "dim, dark sea," as "old ocean" is sometimes very poetically called, is supposed to be about three miles.

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The Commercial Balances of the World.

The Tribune published a lugubrious article a few days since, on the commercial prospects of the world, from which we make the following quotation:—

"Unless we are grievously mistaken, we shall have less food to export from this year's crop than from almost any other since 1836.

How, then, are we to pay for the Three Hundred Millions' worth of foreign products that we are pretty certain to import during 1857?

Cotton may possibly pay half of it; but that is an extravagant estimate. It were safer to count on an export of Two and a Half Millions of bales, of four hundred pounds each, averaging 12½ cents per pound—in all, One Hundred and Twenty five Millions of Dollars. If we realize One Hundred Millions more from everything we can send abroad except Specie and Bonds, we shall do very well. If we export Thirty Millions of Specie, it will just about suffice to pay the interest on our Foreign Debt, in its various forms of Public Debt, State Debts, Railroad Stocks, Bonds, &c. If we have not miscalculated, all we import this year beyond Two Hundred and Fifty Millions' worth, we must run just so much deeper in debt for; while our Imports up to the 1st of July will not have fallen much if any below Two Hundred Millions. We shall have then Fifty Millions' worth more to import, and as much beyond as we choose to add to our already burdensome Foreign Debt."

These figures, it must be confessed, are well calculated to make business men feel blue; but when we remember that in our aggregate trade with the whole commercial world, the balance of exports over imports is in our favor over TWELVE MILLIONS OF DOLLARS, the "differences" in our account with England are not at all alarming. From the last authentic tables made up by the Revenue Department at Washington the account for the last fiscal year stands thus:—

Total exports of Domestic and Foreign products $326,964,908
Total Foreign Imports 314,639,942
Balance in favor of the U. S. $12,324,966

A very satisfactory and cheering "balance sheet;" and every year it is likely to grow more and more in our favor, until King Commerce shall establish his throne in Wall street. The resources of the United States are inexhaustible in every product and element that goes to make up the public wealth; and while its population is increasing by emigration as well as by "multiplication," in a ration that alway[illegible] surpasses the "calculation tables," the harvests and manufactures of every succeeding year must continue to swell the export products of our country, and bring to our coffers the tributary "balances" of the world.

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1848. Sir John Herschel's Astronomical Observations. 263

which a certain check would be placed on the abuse of privilege.

The same reasons do not apply to the provision in regard to the previous residence of the parties within the district. On the contrary, it seems very necessary to prevent the sudden irruption of a couple into the district of the Registrar, for no purpose but that of marriage—and for this reason, among others, that if parties resident at a distance, and utterly unknown to the neighbourhood before or afterwards, were entitled to use the Register, the benefit of its publicity would be, to a great extent, neutralized, and it would not afford the necessary protection against double marriages.

We had intended to close these remarks by an account of the proposed system of Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, and the machinery contemplated by the statute. But our limits are already exhausted. We shall onl[illegible] observe in leaving the subject, that we hope that both the details and the principles of these measures will be extensively and thoroughly canvassed. There may perhaps be various points of expression, arrangement, or enactment, in which they admit of improvement. We are not without the hope that our next County Meetings, and General Assemblies, will be found quietly canvassing the details of a great national question, with a single and patriotic desire for the social welfare of the people, unterrified by the shadows of coming assessments, or the bugbear of the imagined influence of dissent. It is a subject on which both classes are well entitled to be heard, and to have their deliberate and temperate opinions considered with attention and respect. But if they sink the influence they should possess, in unreasoning and ignorant clamour, they cannot wonder, if stranded by the passing current of public opinion and enlightened legislation, they find their remonstrances fall unheeded on the wearied ears of public men, and their narrow conceptions turned into weapons against them, by those who wish their downfal.

———

ART. IV.—Resulis of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 5, 6, 7, 8, at the Cape of Good Hope, being the completion of a Telescopic Survey of the whole surface of the visible Heavens, commenced in 1825. By Sir JOHN HERSCHEL, Bart., K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. London and Edinburgh.

IN the history of Astronomical Discovery there shine no brighter names than those of Sir William and Sir John Herschel—the father and the son. It is rare that the intellectual mantle of the parent lights upon the child. By no culture, however skilful, and no anxieties, however earnest, can we transmit to our successors the qualities or the capacities of the mind. The eagle eye, the active limb, the giant frame, and the "form divine,"—the gifts of our mortal being, are frequently conveyed by natural descent, and may be numbered even among the rights of primogeniture; but the higher developments of reason and fancy, the bright coruscations of the soul, have never been ranked among the claims or the accidents of birth. The gifts of fortune which we inherit or acquire, have been placed more immediately at our disposal, and in many cases have been handed down unimpaired to distant generations; but Providence has reserved for its own distribution, those transcendental powers which give omnipotence to genius, and constitute its possessor the high priest of nature, or the vicegerent of Heaven. In a destiny so lofty, the father and the son have been rarely associated; and in the very few cases in which a joint commission has been issued to them, it has generally been to work in different spheres, or at different levels. In the universe of mind, the phenomenon of a double star is more rare than its prototype in the firmament, and when it does appear we watch its phases and its mutations with a corresponding interest. The case of the two Herschels is a remarkable one, and may appear an exception to our general law. The father, however, was not called to the survey of the heavens till he had passed the middle period of life, and it was but a just arrangement, that the son, in his youth and manhood, should continue and complete the labours of his sire. The records of Astronomy do not emblazon a more glorious day than that, in which the semidiurnal arc of the father was succeeded by the semidiurnal arc of the son. No sooner had the evening luminary disappeared amid the gorgeous magnificence of the west, than the morning star arose, bright and cloudless in its appointed course.

It has long been a subject of regret to the astronomical world, that in our language no extended account has yet been published of the life and discoveries of Sir William Herschel. With the exception of a short Biographical Memoir,* and a popular abstract of his astronomical observations on

* Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, April, 1823, Vol. VIII., pp. 209-226.


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266 Sir John Herschel's Astronomical Observations. Feb.

and by means of a micrometer for taking the angle of position, described at the end of the paper, he obtained measures of its angle of position with the same fixed star. Although M. Messier, to whom Mr. Herschel communicated his observations, and who had with some difficulty observed it, speaks of it in his reply as a star or a comet, yet neither of them suspected it to be a planet. Mr. Herschel, indeed, himself speaks of it as "a moving star, which he was happy to surrender to the care of the Astronomer Royal and others."

Before the close of the year 1781, Mr. Herschel, in a letter to Sir Joseph Banks, announced to the Royal Society, that, "by the observations of the most eminent astronomers in Europe, the new star which he had the honour of pointing out to them in March, 1781, is a primary planet of our Solar System;" and in gratitude to his Majesty George III., "to whose unlimited bounty he owed everything," he gave it the name of the GEORGIUM SIDUS, a compliment which astronomers in every part of the world have refused to pay. La Lande, and others, gave it the more appropriate name of Herschel; but the uniformity of astronomical nomenclature demanded another name, and the appellation of Uranus, sanctioned by more recent discussions, was given to the new planet.

This important discovery, by which the limits of the Solar System were extended to nearly double their former amount, was hailed by the astronomers of every country, and the highest expectations were formed of the future labours of Mr. Herschel. The Royal Society of London elected him a Fellow of their body. His Majesty George III. did himself the honour of granting him a salary of £300 a year, so as to enable him to devote his time to astronomical research; and all the scientific bodies in Europe successively admitted him into the list of their members.

With the fine telescopes in his possession, Mr. Herschel began, in October, 1781, to make a series of observations on the light, diameter, and magnitude of the new planet; and in his paper on this subject read at the Royal Society on the 7th December, 1782, he described the dark and lucid disc and periphery micrometers by which these observations were made. With this apparatus, by means of which one eye, looking into the telescope, throws the magnified image of a planet or comet upon, or near, lucid discs seen by the other eye, he found the diameter of the Georgium Sidus to be four seconds; and from the distance of the planet from the Sun, as calculated and sent to him by La Lande (18˙913—that of the Earth being 1), he found its diameter to be 4˙454 times that of the earth.

The researches of Mr. Herschel on the Parallax of the Fixed Stars, which we have already mentioned, were chiefly of a speculative nature, and the result of them was published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1782. The method first pointed out by Galileo, and followed by Flamstead and Bradley, of measuring the zenith distances of two stars, was regarded by Mr. Herschel as liable to various sources of error; and he was of opinion that though Bradley regarded the maximum parallax as not exceeding 1", yet "the stars of the first magnitude might still have a parallax of several seconds." The method which he substituted, and which had been originally suggested by Galileo, in his Systema Cosmicum, consisted in employing two stars as near to each other as possible, and differing as much in magnitude as could be found, and determining their exact place at the two opposite points of the earth's annual orbit. The parallax of the stars was then to be computed by a theory founded on probabilities, and involving the two postulates: 1. That the stars are, "one with another, about the size of the sun; and, 2. That the difference of their apparent magnitudes is owing to their different distances;" so that a star of the second, third, or fourth magnitude is two, three, or four times as far off as one of the first. This method, ingenious as it is, has not led to any results on which confidence can be placed. The postulates which it involves were contrary to all analogy, and have been completely disproved by the only measures of parallax which have been recently obtained. But, like many other speculations, the attempt to prove or to apply them led to results more important than those which they directly contemplated. In searching for double stars suitable for his purpose, Mr. Herschel was led to the formation of those magnificent catalogues of double stars by which he enriched astronomy, and those interesting results respecting the movements and periods of binary systems, which now form the most interesting portion of sidereal astronomy.

To us who are in possession of the researches on double stars, which we owe to Mr. Herschel and his son, to Sir James South and M. Struve, it is interesting to mark the first steps in this great inquiry.

"I took pains," says Mr. Herschel, "to find out what double stars have been recorded by astronomers; but my situation permitted me not to consult extensive libraries, nor indeed was it very


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1848. Sir John Herschel's Astronomical Observations. 267

material. For as I intended to view the heavens myself, Nature—that great volume—appeared to me to contain the best catalogue upon this occasion. However, I remembered that the star in the head of Castor, that in the breast of the Virgin, and the first star in Aries, had been mentioned by Cassini as double stars. I also found that the nebula in Orion was marked in Huygens' Systema Saturnium as containing seven stars, three of which (now known to be four) are very near together. With this small stock I began, and, in the course of a few years' observations, have collected the stars contained in my catalogue. I find, with great pleasure, that a very excellent observer (Mr. Pigott) has also, though unknown to me, met with three of those stars that will be found in my catalogue; and upon this occasion, I also beg leave to observe, that the Astronomer-Royal showed me, among other objects, a Hercules as a double-star, which he had discovered some years ago. The Rev. Mr. Hornsby also, in a conversation on the subject of the stars that have a proper motion, mentioned π Bootis as a double star. It is a little hard upon young astronomers to be obliged to discover over again what has already been discovered. However, the pleasure that attended the view when I first saw these stars, has made some amends for not knowing they had been seen before me."*

Mr. Herschel's first Catalogue of Double Stars was read at the Royal Society on the 10th January, 1787. It contains 269 double stars, 227 of which had not been noticed by any other person. It gives the comparative size of the stars, their colour, their distances (as measured by a Lamp Micrometer,† exhibiting two movable lights, with whose distance seen by the unassisted eye the distance of the stars seen in the telescope was compared), their angle of position, and the dates of the observation. The catalogue, which is divided into six classes, contains not only double stars, but also those that are triple, double-double, quadruple, double-triple, and multiple.

Mr. Herschel had now removed to Datchet, near Windsor, where he carried on his observations under the immediate patronage of the King, with new zeal and corresponding success. Towards the end of 1782, he completed his interesting paper—"On the proper motion of the Sun and the Solar System, with an account of several changes that have happened among the fixed stars since the time of Mr. Flamstead." In this paper, he notices, 1. The stars that have been lost, or undergone some capital change since Flamstead’s time; 2. Those that have changed their magnitude; 3. Those that have newly become visible; and the results which he obtained were drawn from a review of all the stars in Flamstead's catalogue, as far as the 12th magnitude, "to the amount of a great many thousands of stars." Those changes which arise from a proper motion of the star, and a variation of magnitude, he suspects may be owing to every star in the heavens being more or less in motion; some, especially in slow motions, arising from their revolving around a large opaque body,—the stars undergoing occasional occultation, or presenting to us large spots in their rotatory movements. Hence he is led to believe, what Tobias Mayer had previously maintained, that the Sun and Solar System have analogous motions, and are advancing to a certain part of the heavens; and he found that this part was in the constellation Hercules, near the star λ, or a point somewhat further to the north.

Having finished in the year 1783, a very good twenty-feet reflector, with a large aperture, he employed it in studying the remarkable luminous spots at the pole of the planet Mars; and he published the results of his observations in the Philosophical Transactions of 1784. By means of these spots, he found that the axis of Mars was inclined to the ecliptic 59° 42', and that its node was in 17° 47' of Pisces, and he determined the ratio of its polar and equatorial diameters to be as 15 to 16.

Towards the end of 1784, Mr. Herschel completed a second catalogue, containing 434 double stars; and in June, 1784, and February, 1785, he communicated to the Royal Society two papers "On the Construction of the Heavens." By means of his twenty feet telescope, with an aperture of 18 7-10 inches, and placed meridionally, he resolved into stars the nebulæ discovered by Messier and Mechain, and also part of the Milky Way; and he discovered no fewer than 466 new nebulae and clusters of stars, which were not within the reach of the best common telescopes then in use. In pursuing these observations, he was led to the remarkable speculation, founded wholly on optical considerations, that as the Milky Way "seemed to encompass the whole heavens," it might be regarded as an immense cluster of stars; and that our sun, with his system of planets, was in all probability placed within it, but "perhaps not in the very centre of its thickness." In order to determine the sun's place in this sidereal stratum, he gauged the heavens, or ascer-

* After his catalogue was in the possession of the Rogay Society, Mr. Herschel received the fourth volume of the Acta Academiæ Theodoro-Palatinæ, containing a paper by Tobias Mayer, giving "a pretty large list of double stars," some of which were the same with those in his catalogue, while 31 were not contained in it.

† Described in the Philosophical Transactions, 1872, p. 163.


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270 Sir John Herschel's Astronomical Observations. Feb.

image of every considerable star became triangular, throwing out long flaming caustics at the angles. Having on one occasion supported the speculum simply against a flat-board, at an elevation of about 45°, he found that its performance was tolerably good; but on stretching a thin pack-thread vertically down the middle of the board, so as to bring the weight of the metal to rest upon this thread, the images of stars were lengthened horizontally "to a preposterous extent, and all distinct vision utterly destroyed by the division of the mirror into two lobes, each retaining something of its parabolic figure, separated by a vertical band in a state of distortion, and of no figure at all!" The method which Sir John found the best was the following:—Between the mirror and the back of the case he interposed 6 or 8 folds of thick woollen baize, or blanketing, of uniform thickness and texture, stitched together at their edges. The metal, when laid flat on this bed, was shaken so as to be concentric with the rim of the case, and two supports, composed of several strips of similar baize, were introduced so as to occupy about 30° each, and to leave an arc of about 40° unoccupied opposite the point which was to be the lowermost in the tube. When the case is raised into an inclined position, and slightly shaken, the mirror takes its own free bearing on these supports, and preserves its figure. It is essential, however, to the successful application of this method that many thicknesses of the baize or blanket should be employed, by which only the effect of flexure in the wooden back itself of the case can be eliminated." As the woollen fibres, however, lose their elasticity, the baize should be occasionally taken out, and beaten or shaken up.✺

In conducting his observations with these fine instruments, Sir John Herschel observed several curious optical effects, arising from peculiar conditions of the atmosphere, incident to the climate of the Cape. In the hot season, from October to March, but particularly during the latter months of that season, "the nights are for the most part superb" at a few miles' distance from the mountains; but occasionally during the excessive heat and dryness of the sandy plains, the "optical tranquillity of the air" is greatly disturbed. In some cases the images of the stars are violently dilated into nebular balls or puffs of upwards of 15´ in diameter. At the end of March, 1834, for example, when Saturn and γ Virginis were both in the field of the 20 feet reflector, "it could not have been told which was the planet and which the star." On other occasions, the stars form "soft, quiet, round pellets of 3´ or 4´ diameter, resembling planetary nebulæ, and quite unlike the spurious discs which they present when not defined. In other cases, these pellets are seen to arise "from an infinitely rapid vibratory movement of the central point in all possible directions," the luminous discs presenting singular phenomena when thrown out of focus, by pushing the eye-piece further in or pulling it further out than its principal focus.*

In the cooler months, from May to October, and especially in June and July, the state of the air is habitually good, and after heavy rains have ceased for a day or two, the tranquillity of the image and the sharpness of vision, is such, that hardly any limit is set to magnifying power, but that which arises from the aberration of the specula. On occasions like these, optical phenomena of extraordinary splendour are produced by viewing a bright star through diaphragms of card-board or zinc, pierced in regular patterns of circular holes by machinery. These phenomena, arising from the interferences of the intromitted rays, and produced less perfectly in a moderate state of the air, surprise and delight every person that sees them. A result of a more valuable kind is obtained when the aperture of the telescope has the form of an equilateral triangle, the centre of which coincides with the centre of the speculum. When close double stars are viewed with the telescope, having a diaphragm of this form, the discs of the two stars which are exact circles, are reduced to about a third of their size, and have a clearness and perfection almost incredible. These discs, however, are accompanied with six luminous radiations running from them at angles of 60°, forming perfectly straight, delicate, brilliant lines, like brightly illuminated threads, running far out beyond the field of view, and, what is singular, capable of being followed like real appendages to the star long after the star itself has left the field. Another optical phenomenon, arising from a peculiar condition of the atmosphere, is described by Sir John Herschel as a "nebulous haze." The effect of it is to encircle every star, of the 9th magnitude and upwards,

*When Sir John adopted this very simple plan, he was ignorant of the very ingenious method by which Lord Rosse affords an equable support to a large speculum, and which we have already described in this Journal, Vol. II.

* Sir John supposes that these phenomena may be produced by ascending and descending currents of hot and cold air rotating spirally.


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1848. Sir John Herschel's Astronomical Observations. 267

with a faint sphere of light of an extent proportioned to the brightness of the star. This phenomenon presents itself very suddenly in a perfectly clear sky, free from the slightest suspicion of cloud, and disappears as suddenly, lasting sometimes only for one or two minutes. Sir John Herschel states that similar nebular affections occur in our English climate, but with much less frequency and suddenness in their appearance and disappearance. He at first suspected that the phenomena arose from dew upon the eye-piece, but repeated examination satisfied him that its origin was really atmospheric. In studying the polarization of the atmosphere, the writer of this article has had occasion frequently to observe what appears to be the result of the same cause. When the sky was of a fine blue colour, and free from clouds, and the degree of polarization, as indicated by the Polarimeter,✺ very great, a sudden change frequently took place without any apparent cause; sometimes near the horizon and not at considerable altitudes, and sometimes at considerable altitudes and not near the horizon. On some occasions the effect was limited in its extent, and of a temporary kind. When it was not temporary, it showed itself in a diminution of the blue tint of the sky, which is invariably accompanied with a diminished polarization, and the whiteness of the sky often increased till clouds were produced, terminating in rain. The cause of these phenomena was doubtless a sudden secretion of aqueous vapour, sometimes local and of a limited extent, and quickly re-absorbed; and at other times general, and terminating in a change of weather. When a cloud passed over a track of perfectly blue sky, without occasioning any perceptible diminution of tint, the polarization of the part of the sky over which it passed was always diminished, owing, no doubt, to its having left in its path a quantity of aqueous vapour.

The description of phenomena, and the tabulated observations contained in the interesting volume now before us, occupy seven chapters, extending over 450 closely printed pages, and are illustrated with seventeen beautifully executed plates, some of which are of a very great size. The valuable contents of these different chapters would doubtless have appeared in a series of unconnected memoirs in the Transactions of the Royal or Astronomical Societies, and

with illustrations very inferior, both in number and quality, had it not been for the munificence of his Grace the late Duke of Northumberland, who destined a large sum for their publication as a single and separate work. This very amiable and public-spirited nobleman, to whom the Observatory at Cambridge owes the gift of the splendid Northumberland achromatic telescope, through which the new planet Neptune was first seen, did not live to witness the final fulfilment of his noble and generous design; but the present Duke, the worthy heir of the titles and the fortune of that distinguished nobleman, carried out, in the fullest manner, the liberal intentions of his lamented brother, and thus added another claim to those which, as Lord Prudhoe, he had already earned, upon the gratitude and esteem of the literary and scientific world.

The following are the subjects which are treated in the volume under our notice:—

Chap. I. On the nebulæ and clusters of stars in the southern hemisphere.

II. On the double stars of the southern hemisphere.

III. Of astrometry, or the numerical expression of the apparent magnitude of stars.

IV. Of the distribution of stars, and of the constitution of the galaxy, or Milky Way, in the southern hemisphere.

V. Observations of Halley's Comet, with remarks on its physical condition, and that of comets in general.

VI. Observations on the Satellites of Saturn.

VII. Observations on the Solar spots.

In the first chapter, on Nebulæ and Clusters of Stars, occupying 164 pages, our author proceeds, after some introductory and explanatory remarks, to give detailed descriptions and monographs of some of the more remarkable of the nebulæ. As some of these nebulae are visible in Europe, and are all objects of singular interest, we shall lay before our readers a very brief notice of the most important of them.



[FIGURE: A table showing the "Right Ascension," "North Polar Distance" and "No. of Stars laid down in the drawing" of 7 nebulae.]

No. 1. This remarkable nebula, which is a nebular line, with the figure of a horseshoe at each end of it, has been observed and drawn by Mr. Mason, and American astronomer, and Mr. Lamont, a native of

*For an account of the polarization of the atmosphere, the reader is referred to Johnston and Berghaus's Physical Atlas, Part VII., and London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine, December, 1847. Vol. XXXI, pp. 444-445.

VOL. VII. 18

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278 Sir John Herschel's Astronomical Observations. Feb.

possible so to view them." Our author was always satisfied of the reality of this phenomenon at the moment of observation, though the conviction was not permanent, the idea of an illusion arising from physiological causes having subsequently arisen. Sir John has, however, given the right ascension and north polar distance of 37 points of the heavens where this whiteness, or "stippling of the ground of the sky" was seen or suspected. In like manner, he has given the places of the points where the ground of the sky is perfectly dark or black, and "certainly devoid of any such stippling or nebulous phenomenon.

On the 25th of October, 1837, Sir John was fortunate enough to obtain a view of the anxiously expected comet of Dr. Halley, and in his fifth chapter, occupying 21 pages, and constituting, in our opinion, one of the most interesting portions of his work, he has given his observations on this singular member of the solar system, illustrating them with thirteen beautiful drawings of it, and adding some curious speculations on its physical condition, and on that of comets in general. On the 29th October, its appearance was most singular, and such as he had never observed in any previous comet. Its nucleus small, bright, and highly condensed, was shielded or capped on the side next the sun by a vivid but narrow crescent of nebulous light, the front of which presented an outline nearly circular, with an amplitude of about 90° from horn to horn. Within this was situated the nucleus, but at a distance behind the front or vertex of the crescent, considerably less than its versed sine.✺ On the 1st of November, it had the common appearance of a comet, with its nucleus and slightly diverging tail; but on the 26th January, after its return from the sun, it had assumed a most surprising and totally new appearance. Its head was sharply terminated, like a ground glass-lamp shade; and within this head was seen "a vividly luminous nucleus," like “a miniature comet, having a nucleus head and tail of its own, perfectly distinct, and considerably exceeding in intensity of light the nebulous head." As the comet rose higher, a minute bright point, never greater than 4ʺ, and like a small star, was distinctly perceived, and this point Sir John calls the nucleus. On the 25th January, the following measures were taken:—

Diameter of the comet's head in R Ascension, 229ʺ.4 13h 38m

Distance of the nucleus from the vertex, 118ʺ.3

Diameter of the head in Declination, 237ʺ.3 14h 15m

Upon repeating these observations in the "strong morning twilight," the results were—

Diameter of the head in R. Ascension, 196ʺ.7 16h 25m

Diameter of the head in Declination, 252" 16 29

The deficiency in this second measure of the head obviously arose from the effect of twilight; but we can only account for the increase in declination by concluding "that the change was real, and that the comet was actually increasing in dimensions with such rapidity that it might almost be said to be seen to grow!" M. Valz had pointed out the increase in the dimensions of comets as they receded from the sun, but an increase in the ratio of 5 to 6, and in so short an interval, must be regarded as a different phenomenon. On the 26th, the nucleus appeared as a star of the 10th magnitude, furred and nebulous; and the dimensions of the comet had greatly increased, the diameter in right ascension being 309ʺ, and in declination 329ʺ, so that the total bulk of the comet, exclusive of the coma, had greatly more than doubled in 24 hours. On the 28th January, upon looking through the 20 feet reflector, Sir John exclaims—"Most astonishing! The coma is all but gone, but there are long irregular nebulous tails in various directions." The nucleus is now no longer a dim misty speck, but a sharp brilliant point. I cannot, however, raise a well-defined disc on it." "It is like a planetary nebula, a little hazy at the edges, 2ʺ or 2½ʺ in diameter." "I now see a sharp, all but planetary disc, diameter fully 1½ʺ, quite distinct from the haze about it. It is like one of Jupiter's satellites in a thick fog of hazy light." "I can hardly doubt," Sir John adds, "that the comet was fairly evaporated in perihelio by the sun's heat, and resolved into transparent vapour, and is now in process of rapid condensation and re-precipitation on the nucleus." The comet resumed its former size on the 29th, and afterwards gradually disappeared as it receded from the sun. Sir John notices the following points as especially remarkable:—

1st. The astonishingly rapid dilatation of its visible dimensions.

2d. The preservation of the same geometrical form of the dilated and dilating envelope.

3d. The rapid disappearance of the coma; and

* There is no doubt Mr. Cooper's Fan, and M. Arago's "Sector." The tail was obliterated by the twilight, and subsequently appeared.


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1848. Sir John Herschel's Astronomical Observations. 279

4th. The increase in the density and relative brightness of the nucleus.

Our limits will not permit us to discuss the speculative views which these phenomena have suggested to our author. He rejects the hypothesis of Valz, that the volume of the comet is directly proportional to its distance from the sun. He maintains that the laws of gravitation are insufficient to account for such a form of equilibrium as that of the comet, which was paraboloidal, and that such a form, as one of equilibrium, is inconceivable without the admission of repulsive as well as of attractive forces. "But if we admit," he adds, "the matter of the tail to be at once repelled from the sun and attracted by the nucleus, it no longer presents any difficulty." In order to obtain the repulsive power, Sir John hazards a theory which supposes the sun to be permanently charged with electricity. The cometic matters vaporized by the sun's heat, in perihelio, the two electricities separated by vaporization, the nucleus becoming negative and the tail positive, and the electricity of the sun directing the tail, in the same manner as a positively electrified body would an elongated non-conducting body, having one end positively, and the other negatively excited. The separation of Biela's comet into two, travelling side by side, like the Siamese twins, presents a new difficulty which it would not be easy to explain. But here we are beyond our depth; and rather than admit Electricity as an agent residing in every sun and acting upon every system, we remain content with the humbler supposition that the rays of the sun may, in the exercise of their chemical and physical influences, find some ingredients in the tails of comets, upon which, by their joint action, they may generate forces capable of producing the phenomena which we have been considering. If we once admit Magnetism and Electricity as agents in our Sidereal systems, the Mesmerists and Phrenologists will form an alliance with the Astrologer, and again desecrate with their sorceries those hallowed regions on which the wizard and the conjuror have long ceased to tread.*

The elements and perturbations of the sixth satellite of Saturn having been elaborately investigated by Bessel, and very little being known respecting the rest, Sir John Herschel availed himself of his advantageous position at the Cape, to make a series of observations on these interesting bodies. Our readers are no doubt aware that after the fourth satellite had been discovered by Huygens in 1655, Cassini discovered the fifth in 1671, and the first, second, and third, in 1684. Sir W. Herschel discovered, in 1780, the sixth and seventh nearer the planet than the rest, the seventh being the nearest. As this nomenclature was very unsatisfactory, many astronomers named them by given numbers corresponding to their distances from the planet; and Sir John Herschel has proposed to distinguish them by a series of heathen names, as in the following table:


[FIGURE: This table lists the names of the satellites of Saturn, their order from the planet, their original order, the discover and date, and the names given to them by Sir J. Herschel.]

Although it would be difficult to banish from our Solar System the names of the heathen gods by which the primary planets are distinguished, yet we must enter our protest against the admission of a brood of demigods. The nomenclature in the first column of the preceding Table is doubtless the proper one, and the adoption of it can be attended with no more inconvenience than we are accustomed to in analogous matters. If the houses of a street are numbered before it is completed, the numbers must be changed whenever a new house is placed on a vacant area. If it is proper or necessary to give names to the secondary planets, our mythological knowledge must be more extensively put in requisition, for we cannot allow the planet Saturn to have a monopoly of the gods. We must find names for the four satellites of Jupiter, and Uranus; and Neptune will make a similar and a heavy demand upon Lemprière.

Sir John Herschel concludes his work with a Seventh chapter, containing Observations on the Solar Spots, and conjectures respecting their cause. The figures of the spots, of which he has given us thirteen in a very interesting plate, were delineated from

*Our astronomical readers will be gratified to learn the M. Leverrier has found that the periodical comets of 1770 and 1844 are two different bodies; that two of the comets of Faye, Vico, and Lexell, passed close to Jupiter; and that all of these comets, now permanently attached to our system, have come into it and been detained by the action of Jupiter and other bodies. M. Leverrier proves that the comets of Faye and Lexell have been in our system for at least a century, and have come a dozen of times near the earth without being observed. The comet of 1844 he proves to be the same as that of 1678, which has travelled into our system from the depths of infinite space, and been fixed among us centuries ago. It will revisit us in 1849.


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286 The Hampden Controversy. Feb.

infinitesimal arc of that immeasurable circle in which it is destined to revolve. It is as if the traveller or naturalist, equipped for the survey of nature's beauties and wonders, had been limited only to a Sabbath's journey. Some mountain tops might rise to his view as he creeps along, and some peaks might disappear beyond the horizon which he leaves behind; but had the first man surveyed the constellation Hercules, to which our system is advancing, it would have seemed to him as remote as it will appear to the last of our race.

In the contemplation of the infinite in number and in magnitude, the mind ever fails us. We stand appalled before the mighty spectre of boundless space, and faltering reason sinks under the load of its bursting conceptions. But placed, as we are, on the great locomotive of our system, destined surely to complete at least one round of its ethereal course, and learning that we can make no apparent advance on our sidereal journey, we pant with new ardour for that distant bourne which we constantly approach without the possibility of reaching it. In feeling this disappointment, and patiently bearing it, let us endeavour to realize the great truth from which it flows. It cannot occupy our mind without exalting and improving it. It cannot take its place among our acquirements without hallowing and ennobling them. Though now but a truth to be received, it may yet become a principle of action, and though now veiled by a cloud, it may yet be a lamp to our feet and a light to our ways. Whom God made after his own image, he will not retain in perpetual darkness. What man's reason has made known, man will be permitted to see and to understand. "He that bindeth the sweet influences of the Pleiades, and looseth the bands of Orion, and quieteth Arcturus with his sons," will in His own time "discover deep things out of darkness," and "reveal the ordinances of heaven."

———

ART. X.—1. Statements and Reflections. By ARCHBISHOP WHATELY.

2. A Concise History of the Hampden Controversy, &c. &c. By the REV. HENRY CHRISTMAS, M. A., F.R.S., F.S.A. London, 1848.

3. A Letter to the Very Reverend the Dean of Chichester on the agitation excited by the Appointment of Dr. Hampden to the See of Hereford. by JULIUS CHARLES HARE, M.A., Archdeacon of Lewes. London, 1848.

IT has been the good or ill fortune of Dr. Hampden to be the occasion of a controversy, now of some twelve years' standing, in which the real merits of the question at issue form almost the only subject, ecclesiastical or academic, that has not been canvassed. The Oxford convocation of graduates,—its constitution,—the veto of the proctors on its proceedings,—its legal competency to pass a vote of censure on a theological professor, excluding him from the board for naming university preachers,—the moral weight or technical value of such a sentence,—the bearing upon it of another Act, six years later, making the same professor member of another board, the amount of confirmation implied in the refusal, at a still later period, to rescind the original censure;—then, coming down to the present time, the relation in which the judgment of a University stands, or ought to stand, to the practical matter of church-preferment,—the act of the Crown, or its advisers, in appointing to a bishopric a man under an alleged University ban as a heretic,—the propriety of the remonstrance of certain of the bishops,—the force of a congé d'élire,—the terror of a premunire,—the position of a dean and chapter refusing to concur in choosing the Queen's presentee,—the effect of a protest by the dean and an individual canon against the choice, as regards the chance of martyrdom,—the functions of the Archi-episcopal Court for confirming the bishop's election,—the claim of objectors to be heard against the confirmation,—and now, lastly, the jurisdiction of the Court of Queen's Bench amid this chaos of confused forms and laws:—such are a few of the interesting points raised in this edifying controversy,—not to mention the infinite personalities of imputed motives and suspected ends on all sides; while to this hour, the main original inquiry,—Is the worthy Doctor, around whom so great a dust has been gathered, a heretic or a true man?—remains substantially where it was in 1836, when all this stir began.

We have no intention of entering upon this inquiry in the present article. We regard it as an inquiry of the last importance, affecting not only Dr. Hampden’s personal reputation for orthodoxy; but the general condition and tendency of the learned theology of our day. It is an inquiry, also, of no small difficulty, and on this account, as well as from a sense of its vast importance, we would desire to devote more time and space to it than we can now command.


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1849. Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. 111

these chapters shall be re-written. Sincerely do we hope that the assured success of this fine production may encourage others to favour the public with equally full and elaborate Dissertations on particular Scripture subjects, this being a department in which our English Biblical literature is wofully deficient.

———

ART. VIII.—1. Nineveh and its Remains, with an Account of a Visit to the Chaldean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers, and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians. BY AUSTIN HENRY LAYARD, Esq., D.C.L. 2 vols. 8vo. Pp. 934. London, 1849.

2. The Monuments of Nineveh, from Drawings made on the spot. By AUSTIN HENRY LAYARD, Esq., D.C.L. Illustrated in One Hundred Plates. London, 1849.

NINEVAH, or the dwelling of Ninus, was the metropolis of the great Assyrian Empire, the residence of a long line of illustrious princes, and once the largest and most populous city in the world. We learn from the book of Genesis that Asshur, one of the sons of Shem, "went forth" from the land of Shinar, and built Nineveh; but we hear nothing more of it in the sacred writings till Jonah, its inspired missionary, describes it as "a great city," an "exceeding great city of three days' journey," and which required him to take "a day's journey" before he reached the spot from which he was to predict its overthrow. The immense population of this great metropolis is also clearly indicated by the prophet. It contained "more than six score thousand (120,000) persons that could not discern between their right hand and their left hand," and must therefore have contained a population of nearly 600,000.

Although the Ninevites repented at the preaching of Jonah, and were for a while spared, yet the prophet Nahum was, a short time afterwards, commissioned to declare "the burden of Nineveh,"—to announce the destruction of the city, and the downfal of the Assyrian Empire. He describes it as a city with many strongholds, and many gates with bars,—her merchants as multiplied above the stars of heaven,—her inhabitants and princes numerous as the locusts, and the " store and glory" of her "pleasant furniture" as endless. "This is the rejoicing city," says Zephaniah, "that dwelt carelessly, that said in her heart, I am, and there is none besides me: how is she become a desolation, a place for beasts to lie down in!"

These predictions were literally fulfilled by the destruction of the city in the year 606 B.C., by the combined armies of Cyaxares, King of Persia and Media, and Nabopolassar, who was either King of Babylon, or, as Mr. Layard thinks, the Assyrian governor of the city. "He that dasheth in pieces came up before her face;" "the gates of her land were set wide open unto her enemies;" "fire devoured her bars," and "herself;" "the noise of the whip, and of the rattling of the wheels, and of the prancing horses, and of the jumping chariots," resounded in her "broad ways;" "the gates of the river were opened, and the palace dissolved;" "there was no end of the corpses of the slain;" "the spoil of silver and the spoil of gold" were "taken;" "and the voice of her messengers was no more heard;" "the nations saw her nakedness, and the kingdoms her shame;" "Nineveh was laid waste;" "she was made a desolation, and dry like a wilderness."

The account of Nineveh as given by profane historians, the details of its destruction, and its present condition as observed by modern travellers, confirm in a most remarkable manner the statements of the ancient prophets. Its walls are described by profane writers as a hundred feet high, sixty miles in circumference, and defended by 1500 towers, each of which was 200 feet in height. Diodorus Siculus informs us that the city was destroyed partly by water and partly by fire, and that many talents of gold and silver preserved from the flames were carried to Ecbatana. Lucian, a native of Samosata near the Euphrates, who flourished in the second century, (between A.D. 90 and A.D. 180,) informs us that Nineveh had utterly perished,—that not a vestige of it remained, and that no one could even point out the place which it occupied.

During the eighteen centuries which have elapsed since the time of Lucian, Nineveh was known only in its name. Its very ruins had disappeared; and while the traveller and the antiquary were investigating the remains of Greek and Roman grandeur, and the geologist was ranging over the globe to discover and disinter the fossil remains of the primeval world, no inquiry was made after the Nineveh and Babylon of Holy Writ, and no pilgrimage undertaken to search for the buried palaces of the Assyrian kings. Huge mounds, seemingly composed of earth and rubbish, had long ago attracted the notice of travellers in Assyria


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112 Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. May,

and Babylonia, and were conjectured to be the remains of their mighty capitals. A vitrified mass of brickwork, Birs Nimroud, rising out of the accumulated rubbish of centuries, was believed to be the tower of Babel. The temple of Belus, according to Herodotus, and other mounds in the neighbourhood, were supposed to be the hanging gardens and marvellous structures attributed to the two Queens, Semiramis and Nitocris; but the difficulty of reaching these localities, though it excited the curiosity of the antiquarian, prevented the traveller from ever paying them a passing visit. The presumed site of the Assyrian metropolis had excited still deeper interest than that of Babylonia. The enormous mounds on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite the modern city of Mosul on the right bank, had been noticed by several travellers; and the traditional tomb of Jonah on the top of one of the mounds, gave probability to the supposition that it marked the site of Nineveh; but notwithstanding this probability, Mr. Macdonald Kinnear, who examined these mounds, was disposed to believe that they were the site of a Roman camp of the time of Hadrian!

It is to the late Mr. Rich, the East India Company's resident at Baghdad, that we owe the first investigation of Assyrian remains. The results of his first examination of the ruins of Babylon near Hillah, which he made in May 1812, with a dissertation on the topography of ancient Babylon, were first published at Vienna in Von Hammer's Oriental Journal, entitled Mines de l'Orient, and this work was afterwards reprinted in England in 1815, under the title of Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon. He found the ruins to consist of mounds of earth, formed by the decomposition of buildings, channelled and furrowed by the weather, and having their surface strewed with pieces of brick, bitumen, and pottery. The grand mass of these ruins is 1100 yards long, 800 yards broad, 50 or 60 feet high, and of a quadrantal form. The next grand heap, of nearly a square form, is 700 yards long, and nearly 100 broad. It is the most interesting portion, according to Mr. Rich, of the ruins of Babylon, every vestige of it indicating its superiority to the rest. In the winding caverns and subterranean passages within are found walls of burnt bricks laid in mortar, with fragments of vessels; and Mr. Rich obtained a sepulchral earthenware urn, with human bones near it, which pulverized with the touch. The other remarkable objects examined by Mr. Rich were the Kasr or Palace,* consisting of several walls

and piers, three different perspective views of which have been published by the author. A mile to the north of the Kasr, and fully five miles from Hillah, is the Mujelibe, which Petro della Valle, and after him Major Rennel, determines to have been the tower of Belus. It is of an oblong, irregular shape. The elevation of the highest angle is 141 feet, the average length of its four sides being about 185 yards. In digging out the earth for a passage in the northern part, Mr. Rich discovered near the top a wooden coffin, containing a skeleton in high preservation. A brass bird outside the coffin, and an inside brass ornament were found; and a little further on was found the skeleton of a child. There were no ruins on the eastern side of the river. Mr. Rich then visited the Birs Nimroud, "the most stupendous and surprising mass of all the remains of Babylon, situated in the desert about six miles to the south-west of Hillah." It is an oblong mound, 762 yards in circumference, having on its summit a solid pile of brick, 37 feet high and 28 broad, perforated by small square holes disposed in rhomboids, and having vitrified masses on its summit. The mound is itself a ruin, channelled and strewed with fragments of all sorts. There is some reason to believe with Niebuhr and Mr. Rich, that Birs Nimroud, "which is pretty nearly in the state in which Alexander saw it," was the tower of Belus, described by Herodotus.*

In Mr. Rich's Second Memoir on Babylon, published in 1818, he gives a slight notice of the ruins of Nineveh. He speaks of the rectangular inclosure opposite Mosul as answering to the palace of Nineveh. Its sides correspond to the cardinal points of the compass, the western, one of the largest, facing the river. Its boundary, resembling a low embankment of rubbish, "has attached to it and its line,† at several places, mounds of greater size and solidity." The village of Nebbi Yunus, where they show Jonah's tomb, is built on the mound at the southwest angle. The largest mound situated near the centre of the western face, is supposed to be the monument of Ninus, and is called by the natives Koyunjik Tepe, the

* Major Rennet considers this building as "subsequent to Old Babylon, but before the time of Islam."

*Fire-burnt, sun-dried bricks, bitumen, mortar and clay, were the materials used in the buildings of Babylon.

† Mr. Rich has given four views of the Mujelibe, and four of Birs Nimroud. These views have been republished in Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia. Major Rennel considers the Mujelibe as the tower of Belus, an opinion ably controverted by Mr. Rich in his "Second Memoir on Babylon."


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1849. Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. 113

village of Koyunjik being built at its northeast extremity. It has the shape of a truncated pyramid, and is 178 feet high, 1850 feet long on its summit from east to west, and 1847 from north to south. An immense block of stone, sculptured with the figures of men and animals, was found a "short time ago" in one of the mounds on the north face of it.

"So remarkable," says Mr. Rich, "was this fragment of antiquity, that even Turkish apathy was roused, and the Pasha and most of the principal people of Mosul came out to see it. One of the spectators particularly recollected among the sculptures on this stone* the figure of a man on horseback, with a long lance in his hand, followed by a great many others on foot. The stone was soon afterwards cut into small pieces for repairing the buildings of Mosul, and this inestimable specimen of the arts and manners of the earliest ages irrecoverably lost.'†

In the year 1820, Mr. Rich paid his fourth visit to Mosul. Having been obliged, for the benefit of his health, to visit Kurdistan, he returned to Baghdad by way of Mosul, and employed the few weeks he was able to spend in that city in examining the mounds on the opposite bank of the river. In passing through the area of Nineveh, on the 31st of October, he observed marks of a double wall, "the walls on the east having become quite a concretion of pebbles, like the natural hills," though large hewn stones are frequently dug out of them. The stormy weather having abated, he began his examination of the ruins on the 8th November, crossing the Tigris where it was about two fathom deep, and 400 feet wide. At the village of Nebbi Yunus, he found various pieces of gypsum, with inscriptions in the cuneiform or arrow-headed character, one of which, now in the British Museum, was covered with writing. Another appeared to be part of the wall of a passage "said to reach far into the mound." A third, apparently in its original position, is part of a wall plastered with mud. "I doubt not," says Mr. Rich, "but many other antiquities might be found in this mound, but the greater part of it is thickly covered with a labyrinth of small houses, and it is only on the repairing or falling down of these that such things are discovered."

After visiting the tomb of Jonah, consisting of several dark, narrow, and vaulted ancient passages, surmounted by a mosque, he examined the area of Nineveh, which, at a rough guess, he makes from one and a half to two miles broad, and four miles long, stretching a short way south of Nebbi Yunus. The mound of Koyunjik is 43 feet high, and 7691 in circuit. A fragment of pottery with cuneiform writing was discovered in his presence, and on the south side of the inclosure were found huge stones laid in layers of bitumen and lime mortar. There was also found at Nebbi Yunus a square stone slab, with an extremely perfect cuneiform inscription. After a careful survey of the locality,* Mr. Rich again came to the conclusion at which he had previously arrived, that the present inclosure formed only part of a great city, and was probably either the citadel or royal precincts, an opinion which is in harmony with the descriptions of Strabo and Diodorus Siculus.† Although Mr. Rich lived four months on the site of Nineveh, he made no attempt to excavate the mound, and hence all the antiquities which he did collect, including those from Babylon, would not occupy a cube of three feet.

Such was the meagre information which we possessed in 1844 of the site of Nineveh, and of the sculptures and arts of Assyria. Mr. Layard, indeed, had at an earlier period trodden this consecrated ground, and made some attempts to disinter its antiquities. After wandering through Asia Minor and Syria, in 1839 and 1840, he completed his pilgrimage by repairing to the remains of Nineveh and Babylon. On the 10th April 1840, he entered Mosul, and visited the extensive ruins on the left bank of the Tigris, including the great mounds of Koyunjik and Nebbi Yunus. He explored, in company with Mr. Ainsworth, the mound of Kalah Sherghat, a vast ruin on the Tigris, 50 miles below its junction with the Zab. On his way thither, and near the Arab village of Hammun Ali, he saw the vestiges of an ancient city. From an artificial eminence, he observed over a line of lofty mounds one of a pyramidical form rising high above the rest. "This was the pyramid which Xenophon had described, and near which the ten thousand had encamped;

* "A grey stone, the height of two men, dug from a spot above the surface of the ground."—Rich's Narrative, &c., vol. ii. p. 39.

† In an Appendix to his Second Memoir, Mr. Rich has given a description illustrated with three large plates of antiquities and inscriptions from Babylon.—Pp. 47-58.

* The results of this survey are given in a very accurate Plan of the Ruins of Nineveh.

† We must refer our readers for a minute account of Mr. Rich's survey of Nineveh to his Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan, edited by his Widow, vol. ii. chap. xiii. xiv. See also Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1836, vol. vi. p. 361.

VOL. XI. 8

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114 Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. May,

the ruins around it were those which the Greek General saw twenty-two centuries before, and which were even then the remains of an ancient city." In the vast mass of shapeless ruins at Kalah Sherghat, he discovered a few fragments of pottery and inscribed bricks, but he sought in vain for figures carved in black stone, which, according to a tradition among the Arabs, existed among the ruins. Mr. Layard was particularly struck with the contrast between these ruins and those which he had left behind him in Asia Minor or Syria, and he has presented to us this contrast in the following beautiful passage:—

"The graceful column rising above the thick foliage of the myrtle, the ilex, and the oleander; the gradines of the amphitheatre covering the gentle slope, and overlooking the dark blue waters of a lake-like bay; the richly-carved cornice or capital half-hidden by the luxuriant herbage; are replaced by the stern shapeless mound rising like a hill from the scorched plain, the fragments of pottery, and the stupendous mass of brickwork occasionally laid bare by the winter rains. He has left the land where nature is still lovely, where, in his mind's eye, he can rebuild the temple or the theatre, half-doubting whether they would have made a more grateful impression upon the senses than the ruin before him. Those of whose works they are the remains, unlike the Roman and Greek, have left no visible traces of their civilisation, or of their arts: their influence has long since passed away. The more he conjectures, the more vague his results appear. The scene around is worthy of the ruin he is contemplating; desolation meets desolation: a feeling of awe succeeds to wonder; for there is nothing to relieve the mind, to lead to hope, or to tell of what has gone by. These huge mounds of Assyria made a deeper impression upon me, gave rise to more serious thought and more earnest reflection, than the temples of Balbec or the theatres of Ionia."—Vol. i. pp. 6, 7.

Mr. Layard again saw and examined the ruins of Nimroud, when descending the Tigris on a raft in the middle of April. Amid the flowers of every hue with which the spring rains had enamelled the mound and the adjacent meadows, he found "a few fragments of bricks, pottery, and alabaster, upon which might be traced the well-defined edges of the cuneiform character." From the base of the mound there stretched a long line of consecutive narrow mounds, which retained the appearance of walls or ramparts, and formed a vast quadrangle. A great dam here crosses the Tigris, which flows over it in a formidable cataract. It consists of huge stones squared and united by cramps of iron, and was intended to furnish water to the innumerable canals which are spread like network over the country. These dams, which greatly impeded the fleets of Alexander, were even in his time looked upon as the works of an ancient nation. The curiosity of Mr. Layard was highly excited by the contemplation of these ancient remains, and "from that time he formed the design of thoroughly examining, whenever it might be in his power, these singular ruins."

When Mr. Layard again visited Mosul, in the summer of 1842, on his way to Constantinople, he found that M. Botta, a nephew of the historian of Italy, had, since his former visit, been appointed French Consul in that city, and had commenced excavations in the great mound of Koyunjik. These excavations were very limited in extent, and had at that time yielded but a few fragments of brick and alabaster, containing a few letters in the cuneiform or arrow-headed character. M. Botta, however, was not discouraged. While continuing his excavations in the same mound, a peasant from the village of Khorsabad, about four or five hours distant from Mosul, happened to visit the spot, and advised the Consul to try the mound on which his own village, of 50 or 60 hovels, was built. M. Botta sent an agent, with one or two workmen, who, on sinking a well, came upon the top of a wall, which, upon digging deeper, they found to consist of sculptured slabs of gypsum. He hastened to the village, and upon cutting a wider trench in the direction of the wall, he found that he had opened a chamber connected with others, and formed of slabs of gypsum, covered with sculptured representations of battles, sieges, and similar events. At the end of six months, he had explored no fewer than six chambers or halls, some of which were very large, and seen 459 feet of bas-reliefs, between which were cut numerous inscriptions in the cuneiform character, proving that the building belonged to a period which preceded the conquest of Alexander. In this manner had M. Botta discovered an Assyrian building, the first, probably, as Mr. Layard remarks, which had been exposed to the view of man since the fall of the Assyrian Empire. As the edifice thus explored had been destroyed by fire, the slabs of gypsum, had reduced to lime by the intense heat, fell rapidly to pieces on exposure to the air. No precaution, says Mr. Layard, could arrest their rapid decay; and it was to be feared that this wonderful monument had only been uncovered to complete its ruin. The records of victories and triumphs which had long attested the power, and swelled the pride, of the Assyrian kings, and had resisted the ravages of ages, were now passing away


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for ever. They could scarcely be held together until an inexperienced pencil should secure an imperfect evidence of their former existence. Almost all that was first discovered thus speedily disappeared, and the same fate has befallen nearly everything subsequently found at Khorsabad.

When M. Botta's means were exhausted, he transmitted copies of the sculptures and inscriptions to his friend M. Mohl, the celebrated oriental scholar, who laid them before the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres in Paris.* This learned body took a deep interest in the subject, and induced the Minister of the Interior, M. Duchatel, to make a grant from the public funds to carry on the excavations at Khorsabad. M. Eugene Flandin, a skilful draftsman, whose talents and zeal had been displayed in his travels in Persia, was sent as an auxiliary to the Consul, and on his arrival at Mosul, a system of effectual research was instantly adopted. M. Botta purchased the whole village of Khorsabad for a certain number of piastres from the Chapter of Arbela, to whom it belonged. The Pasha, however, threw difficulties in the way; but in consequence of his death, and the delay in appointing his successor, the French antiquaries pursued their inquiries with ardour and success. Fifteen chambers, many of which were from 111 to 115 feet in length, were explored. The sculptures occupy tablets of marble from 6½ to 10 feet wide, covering the brick walls to the height of 10 feet. In some of the galleries these tablets form two belts, each 3½ feet high, containing figures 3 feet 3 inches in height. Cuneiform inscriptions occupy the space between these two belts. The relief of the figures is proportional to their size, which is occasionally such as to reach from the bottom to the top of the marble slab. These figures compose processions of kings, priests, nobles, and warriors, extending to the length of 1300 feet along the whole façades. Battle-pieces, festivals, captive cities, and the torture and execution of prisoners, are all represented with admirable skill and spirit, and in the highest style of art. The principal gates of entrance are surmounted by gigantic winged bulls, with human heads, crowned with a huge tiara, small lions having been chained at the feet of the bulls. M. Flandin has noticed it as remarkable, that the lion is never represented at liberty, but always in chains; and it deserves also to be remarked, that there are no inscriptions at Khorsabad on the external façades of the buildings. He, therefore, with much probability, refers these sculptures, and the palace which they adorn, to the second and last dynasty of the Assyrian kings, whose names occur in the sacred writings. Mr. Layard was among the first persons who were made acquainted with these researches of M. Botta, who liberally allowed him to see his letters and drawings as they passed through Constantinople; and during the whole period of his excavations, he not only sent Mr. Layard his descriptions, but copies of the inscriptions, without exacting any promise as to the use he might make of them. M. Botta's excavations were completed early in 1845; and having secured many excellent specimens of Assyrian sculpture, he returned to Europe with a rich collection of inscriptions, now lodged in Paris.

Mr. Layard was among the first to form an opinion of the age and origin of the remarkable palace discovered by M. Botta; and in three letters, published in the Malta Times, he stated the general grounds upon which he founded his views. Thus informed on the subject, and impressed with the importance of pursuing these researches, Mr. Layard was anxious to devote himself to the task. If Khorsabad did not represent ancient Nineveh, and if the edifice discovered there had been one of its palaces, other buildings, more vast and magnificent, must exist nearer the seat of government, on the banks of the Tigris. Occupied with this conviction, Mr. Layard's thoughts reverted to the ruins at Nimroud, and the traditions with which they were associated. In the autumn of 1845, Sir Stratford Canning had mentioned to him his willingness to bear for a limited time the expenses of excavations in Assyria, and it is to this generous and noble action of our ambassador that we owe that noble collection of Assyrian antiquities which Mr. Layard has succeeded in transmitting to the British Museum.

Furnished with letters of introduction to the authorities at Mosul, Mr. Layard left Constantinople in the middle of October 1845, "crossed the Mountains of Pontus, and the great Steppes of the Usun Yilak, as fast as post-horses could carry him, descended the high lands into the valley of the Tigris, galloped over the vast plains of Assyria, and reached Mosul in twelve days." Having paid his respects to the Governor, Mohammed Pasha, and secretly procured

* M. Botta was at the first vacancy nominated a corresponding member of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres. His letters were read at the sittings of April, June, July, August, September, and October 1843, and January 1844. See Mémoires de l'Institut Royale de France. Acad. des Inscript. et Belles Lettres, 1845. Tom. xiv. pp. 27, 28.


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a few tools, and engaged a mason, he left Mosul on the 8th November, and accompanied by Mr. Ross, a British merchant in Mosul, his own Cawass, and a servant, he descended the Tigris to Nimroud in five hours, and at sunset reached the Arab village of Naifa. Awad, a Sheikh of the Jehesh, in whose house he lodged, entered his service, and speedily engaged six Arabs to assist in the excavations. In the principal mound, only twenty minutes' walk from the village, about 1800 feet long, 900 broad, and 65 high, supposed to be the pyramid of Xenophon, they found fragments with cuneiform inscriptions, and in the course of the morning ten large slabs forming a square were uncovered, forming the top of a chamber, with an entrance at the north-west corner, where a slab was wanting. Cuneiform inscriptions occupied the centre of all the slabs, which were in the highest preservation. Digging into the side of the mound, the workmen came immediately to a wall having similar inscriptions, but the slabs had been exposed to intense heat, and were so cracked and reduced to lime, that they threatened to fall to pieces. The labours of this first day's work were highly encouraging, and strengthened with five Turcomans, who had been attracted by the prospect of regular wages, the party began the work of the second day. Inscribed slabs, ivory ornaments, with traces of gilding, among which was a male figure in long robes, walls branching out at different angles, and a great accumulation of charcoal, proving the destruction of one of the buildings by fire, were the amount of this day's labour. During the continuance of the excavations for other three days, several inscriptions were uncovered, but no sculptures. Scattered fragments of gold-leaf had induced the workmen to believe that Mr. Layard was in search of gold, and even his head-workman, Awad, had arrived at the same conclusion. "O Bey," said he, "here is the gold sure enough, and, please God, we shall find it all in a few days. Only don't say anything about it to these Arabs, for they are asses, and cannot hold their tongues. The matter will come to the ears of the Pasha." The Sheikh was at once disappointed and surprised when Mr. Layard presented him with the golden treasure he had collected, and assured him that he might retain " all such as he might hereafter discover."

As the experiment of excavation had been successfully tried, Mr. Layard galloped to Mosul in order to acquaint the Pasha, Keritli Oglu, (the son of the Cretan), with the nature and object of his researches. This extortioner by law had one eye and one ear, was short and fat, deeply indented with the small-pox, uncouth in gestures, and harsh in voice. He revived old and forgotten impositions, and he "particularly insisted on dish pararsi, (tooth-money)—a compensation levied upon all villages in which a man of such rank is entertained, for the wear and tear of his teeth in masticating the food he condescends to receive from the inhabitants." The population were in a state of terror and despair, and hopes were expressed and reports whispered, that the tyrant was to be deposed. These murmurs had reached his ears, and he fell upon a plan to test the feeling of the people.

"He was suddenly taken ill one afternoon, and was carried to his harem almost lifeless. On the following morning the palace was closed, and the attendants answered inquiries by mysterious motions, which could only be interpreted in one fashion. The doubts of the Mosuleans gradually gave way to general rejoicings; but at midday his Excellency, who had posted his spies all over the town, appeared in perfect health in the market-place. His vengeance fell principally upon those who possessed property, and had hitherto escaped his rapacity. They were seized and stripped on the plea that they had spread reports detrimental to his authority."—Vol. i. p. 20.

It was to such a man that Mr. Layard had now to appeal. The report of hidden treasure had induced the fanatical Cadi and some of the principal inhabitants to endeavour to raise a riot, which was to end in the demolition of the British Consulate, and other acts of violence. Under these circumstances, Mr. Layard waited on the Pasha, and congratulated him on his speedy recovery—a compliment which he received with a grim smile of satisfaction. The Pasha then introduced the subject of the Cadi:—" 'Does that ill-conditioned fellow,' said he, 'think that he has Sheriff Pasha (his immediate predecessor) to deal with, that he must be planning a riot in the town? When I was at Siwas, the Ulema tried to excite the people because I encroached on a burying-ground. But I made them eat dirt! Wallah! I took every grave-stone and built up the castle walls with them.' He pretended at first to be ignorant of the excavations at Nimroud; but subsequently thinking that he would convict me of prevarication in my answers to his questions as to the amount of treasure discovered, pulled out of his writing-tray a scrap of paper as dingy as that produced by Awad, in which was also preserved an almost invisible particle of gold-leaf. These, he said, had been brought to him by the commander of the irregular


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troops stationed at Selamiyah, who had been watching my proceedings. I suggested that he should name an agent to be present as long as I worked at Nimroud, to take charge of all the precious metals that might be discovered."

No objection having been made to the continuance of the excavations, Mr. Layard rode daily from his new residence at Selamiyah, a distance of three miles, to superintend the work. Two fine bas-relief sculptures were now discovered, one representing war-chariots, with warriors, and richly caparisoned horses; and another, the siege of a castle or walled city, with warriors, some on the turrets discharging arrows and stones, and others ascending a ladder placed against the walls. While meditating upon this interesting discovery, Daoud Agha, the commander of the irregulars, brought orders from Mosul to stop the excavations, by threatening the workmen. Mr. Layard rode off early next morning to Mosul to expostulate with the Pasha, who, pretending surprise, disclaimed having given any orders, and directed his secretary to write an order to the commander of the irregulars to assist rather than obstruct him. Mr. Layard requested this letter to be sent to him before he left Mosul; but the Pasha, on the ground that he was unwilling to detain him, promised to forward it in the evening. On his arrival at Selamiyah, Mr. Layard informed Daoud Agha of the success of his visit; but the commander returned to him at midnight with the news, that a horseman had just brought him the most stringent orders, that on no account was he to permit the excavations to be continued. Confounded with this intelligence, Mr. Layard visited the Pasha next day, and received the following explanation of his conduct:—

" 'It was with deep regret,' said the Pasha, 'I learned after your departure yesterday, that the mound in which you are digging had been used as a burying-ground by the Mussulmans, and was covered with their graves. Now you are aware that, by the law, it is forbidden to disturb a tomb; and the Cadi and Mufti have already made representations to me on the subject.' 'In the first place,' replied I, 'I can state that no graves have been disturbed; in the second, after the wise and firm politico which your Excellency exhibited at Siwas, grave-stones would present no difficulty.' * * * 'No,' added he, 'I cannot allow you to proceed; you are my dearest and most intimate friend: if anything happens to you, what grief should I not suffer! Your life is more valuable than old stones; besides, the responsibility would fall on my head.' "—Vol. i. p. 44.

Mr. Layard pretended to acquiesce in this decision, and requested that a Cawass of his own might be sent with him to Nimroud, in order to have the sculptures already uncovered drawn, and the inscriptions copied. The Pasha's Cawass was readily induced to countenance the employment of a few workmen to guard the sculptures during the day. With regard to the graves that had been disturbed, Daoud Agha confessed that he had been ordered to make graves on the mound, and that his troops had for two nights been bringing stones from distant villages for that purpose. "We have destroyed," said he, "more real tombs of the true believers in making sham ones, than you could have defiled between the Zab and Selamiyah. We have killed our horses and ourselves in carrying these accursed stones." Continuing to employ a few men to open trenches by way of experiment, several gigantic figures, uninjured by fire, were discovered, a crouching lion rudely carved in basalt, and a pair of gigantic winged bulls, without the head and half the wings. On the back of these slabs, 14 feet long, on which these animals had been carved in high relief, were inscriptions in large and well cut characters. A pair of winged lions without the heads, admirably designed and carefully executed, were also discovered, and a human figure nine feet high. These sculptures were left in situ, the upper part only having been examined.

Having now no doubt of the existence of vast edifices in the interior of the mound of Nimroud, Mr. Layard urged on Sir Stratford Canning the necessity of a firman order from the Porte, to prevent his proceedings from being interfered with. He covered over the sculptures, and withdrew from Nimroud, leaving an agent at Selamiyah. On entering Mosul on the 18th December, he found the population rejoicing at the dismissal of Keritli Oglu, and the appointment of Ishmael Pasha as his successor. Owing to the state of the weather, the continuance of the excavations was impossible, and Mr. Layard proceeded to Baghdad, which he reached on the 24th December, in order to consult Major Rawlinson, and make arrangements for the removal of the sculptures at a future period. On his return to Mosul early in January, the new Pasha gave him every assistance and protection. His agent at Nimroud had not been idle. The counterfeit graves had been removed, and also others which possessed more claim to respect. Mr. Layard satisfied the Arabs, that as the bodies were not turned towards Mecca, they could not be those of true believers.

The Cadi of Mosul again contrived to interrupt the excavation. He alleged that Mr. Layard was carrying off treasure, and trying


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118 Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. May,

to prove by the inscriptions that the Franks once held the country. The Mufti took up the same ground, and complained to the Pasha, who requested him to suspend his operations for a short time. Still, however, he made fresh experiments with only a few men to avoid notice. He discovered two human figures about the natural size, in bas-relief, and with the freshness of a recent work. All their parts were entire. The figures were back to back with wings, and an inscription ran across the sculptures. He now recognised at once whence many of the sculptures of the S. W. buildings had been brought, and it was evident, he thought, that he had at length discovered the earliest palace in Nimroud. In the N. W. palace he discovered an eagle-headed figure, of a very singular form, furnished with wings, and clothed in long robes. On all these figures paint could be distinctly seen, particularly on the hair, beard, eyes, and sandals, and the slabs were such that they could be easily packed and transported.

When Mr. Layard was returning to the mound on the morning after these discoveries, he saw two Arabs on their mares approaching him at the top of their speed. "Hasten, O Bey," they exclaimed, " Hasten to the diggers, for they have found Nimroud himself!"

"On reaching the ruins," says Mr. Layard, " I descended and found the workmen, who had already seen me as I approached, standing near a heap of baskets and cloaks. Whilst Awad advanced and asked for a present to celebrate the occasion, the Arabs withdrew the screen they had so hastily constructed, and disclosed an enormous human head sculptured in full out of the alabaster of the country. They had uncovered the upper part of a figure, the remainder of which was still buried in the earth. I saw at once that the head must have belonged to a winged lion or bull, similar to those of Khorsabad or Persepolis. It was in admirable preservation. The expression was calm yet majestic, and the outline of the features showed a freedom and knowledge of art scarcely to be looked for in the works of so remote a period. The cap had three horns, and, unlike that of the human-headed bulls hitherto found in Assyria, was rounded and without ornament at the top.

"I was not surprised that the Arabs had been amazed and terrified at this apparition. It required no stretch of imagination to conjure up the most strange fancies. This gigantic head, blanched with age, thus rising from the bowels of the earth, might well have belonged to one of those fearful beings which are pictured in the traditions of the country, as appearing to mortals, slowly ascending from the regions below. One of the workmen, on catching the first glimpse of the monster, had thrown down his basket and run off to Mosul as fast as his legs could carry him. I learned this with regret, as I anticipated the consequences.

"Whilst I was superintending the removal of the earth which still clung to the sculpture, and giving directions for the continuation of the work, a noise of horsemen was heard, and presently Abd-ur-rahman,* followed by half his tribe, appeared on the edge of the trench. As soon as the two Arabs had reached the tents, and published the wonders they had seen, every one mounted his mare and rode to the mound, to satisfy himself of the truth of these inconceivable reports. When they beheld the head they all cried together, 'There is no God but God, and Mahommed is his prophet!' It was some time before the sheikh could be prevailed upon to descend into the pit, and convince himself that the image he saw was of stone. 'This is not the work of men's hands,' exclaimed he, 'but of those infidel giants of whom the Prophet, peace be with him! has said, that they were higher than the tallest date tree; this is one of the idols which Noah, peace be with him! cursed before the flood.' In this opinion, the result of a careful examination, all the bystanders concurred.

"I now ordered a trench to be dug due south from the head, in the expectation of finding a corresponding figure, and before nightfall reached the object of my search, about twelve feet deep."—Vol. i. pp. 65-67.

Having engaged two or three men to sleep near the sculptures, Mr. Layard celebrated the day's discovery by a slaughter of sheep, and by a dance, which was kept up during the greater part of the night. Mosul was thrown into commotion by the news. Nimroud was declared by the terrified Arabs to have appeared, and the Cadi, the Mufti, and the Ulema, complained to the Pasha that these excavations were contrary to the Koran. The Pasha requested the excavations to be discontinued till the sensation in the town had subsided. Two men, however, were allowed to dig leisurely, and before the end of March two additional and magnificent specimens of Assyrian art, in perfect preservation, were secured, namely, a second pair of winged human-headed lions, about twelve feet in length and height. Cuneiform inscriptions, in which not a character was wanting, covered all the parts of the slab that were not occupied by the figure.

"I used to contemplate," says Mr. Layard, "for hours these mysterious emblems, and muse over their intent and history. What more noble forms could have ushered the people into the temple of their Gods? What more sublime, images could have been borrowed from nature by men, who sought, unaided by the light of revealed

*The Sheikh of the Abou Salman Arabs, whom Mr. Layard had propitiated by a friendly visit and presents.


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religion, to embody their conception of the wisdom, power, and ubiquity of a supreme being? They could find no better type of intellect and knowledge than the head of the man; of strength, than the body of the lion; of rapidity of motion, than the wing of the bird. These winged human-headed lions were not idle creations, the offspring of mere fancy; their meaning was written upon them. They had awed and instructed races which flourished 3000 years ago. Through the portals which they guarded, kings, priests, and warriors had borne sacrifices to their altars long before the wisdom of the East had penetrated to Greece, and had furnished its mythology with symbols long recognised by the Assyrian votaries. They may have been buried, and their existence may have been unknown before the foundation of the Eternal City. For twenty-five centuries they had been hidden from the eye of man, and they now stood forth once more in their ancient majesty. But how changed was the scene around them! The luxury and civilisation of a mighty nation had given place to the wretchedness and ignorance of a few half-barbarous tribes. The wealth of temples, and the riches of great cities, had been succeeded by ruins and shapeless heaps of earth. Above the spacious hall in which they stood the plough had passed and the corn now waved. Egypt has monuments no less ancient and no less wonderful, but they have stood forth for ages to testify her early power and renown, whilst those before me had but now appeared to bear witness, in the words of the Prophet, that once 'the Assyrian was a Cedar in Lebanon, with fair branches and with a shadowing shroud of high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs * * * his height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long, because of the multitude of waters when he shot forth. All the fowls of heaven made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, and under his shadow dwelt all great nations;' for now is 'Nineveh a desolation and dry like a wilderness, and flocks lie down in the midst of her: All the beasts of the nations, both the cormorant and bittern, lodge in the upper lintels of it; their voice sings in the windows; and desolation is in the thresholds.' "*—Vol. i. pp. 69-71.

After paying a visit to the celebrated ruins of Al Hather, which have been described by Dr. Ross† and Mr. Ainsworth,‡ Mr. Layard returned to Mosul to resume his operations. As several of the principal Christian families were anxious to see the sculptures, Mr. Layard wished to gratify their curiosity by giving them a ball and supper before the summer heat had commenced. The French and English consuls, and their ladies, joined the party, and a general invitation was given to all the Arabs of the district, men and women. The Pasha lent his white pavilions, which were pitched near the river, on a broad lawn, carpeted with flowers, for the accommodation of the ladies and the reception of the Sheikhs; and black tents were provided for some of the guests, and the attendants of the kitchen. In the centre of the group of tents an open space was left for dancing and other exhibitions. The Sheikh Abd-ur-rahman arrived early, magnificently dressed, on his tall white mare, and surrounded by horsemen, carrying spears tipt with tufts of ostrich feathers. A Kurdish band of music accompanied Mr. Layard to meet the Sheikh, whose attendants urged their mares to the top of their speed, engaging in mimic war, and filling the air with their wild war-cry, which was almost drowned by the Kurds, who belaboured their drums and blew their pipes with redoubled energy. The other Sheikhs, with their women and children, came on foot. The wife and daughters of Abd-ur-rahman, mounted on mares, and surrounded by their slaves and hand-maidens, next appeared. When they had dismounted at the entrance of the ladies' tents, they were entertained with sweetmeats, parched peas, and lettuces, while the assembled crowd, male and female, enjoyed the more solid fare of fourteen sheep that were roasted and boiled for the occasion. The dinner was succeeded by dancing, and Mr. Rassam persuaded some of the women to join the debké, the dance of the Arabs, compounded of shuffling steps, twisting attitudes, and stamping, yelling, and jumping. Sword-dances, by warriors of different tribes, were performed; but as the excitement increased with the music, the bystanders were obliged to replace the swords of the performers with stout staves, with which they belaboured one another unmercifully, each successful hit being applauded by the male war-cry and the female tahlehl of the tribe to which the one who dealt it belonged. This féte, which was kept up by moonlight till an early hour, was returned by Abd-ur-rahman, who entertained the Franks next day with debkés and sword-dances. The Sheikh insisted upon Mr. Layard joining with him in leading off a dance, in which they were accompanied by some five hundred warriors and Arab women.

Fortunately for Mr. Layard, a new Governor, Tahyar Pasha, courteous to Europeans, and well-informed in literature and history, came to Mosul; but his means being very limited, he was not able to carry on the excavations as he wished. A small but effective body of workmen, however, continued to excavate, and the result of

* Ezekiel xxxi. 3, and Zephaniah ii. 13,14.

† Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 1839, vol. ix. p. 443.

‡Travels.


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120 Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. May,

their labour was the winged human-headed bull, whose head had been previously found, sixteen copper lions, varying from a foot to an inch in size, and three interesting slabs, now in England, exhibiting the front of the lion and the bull, which, from "the art displayed in the treatment and composition, the correct and effective delineation of the man and animal, the spirit of the grouping, and its extraordinary preservation, is probably the finest specimen of Assyrian art in existence."

At this time, a vizirial letter arrived, procured by Sir Stratford Canning, authorizing the excavations and the removal of the sculptures. Mr. Layard received it when on a gazelle-hunting excursion with Abd-ur-rahman, and he "read by the light of a small camel-dung fire the document which secured to the British nation the records of Nineveh, and a collection of the earliest monuments of Assyrian art." Pecuniary resources, however, were still wanting for extensive excavations; but the zeal of Mr. Layard compensated the parsimony of England. He now opened trenches in the great mound of Koyunjik, which travellers had supposed to mark the true site of Nineveh. The French consul claimed the ruins as French property; but as the claim was not recognised, he and Mr. Layard excavated in different directions for about a month, without much success. The sculptures and inscriptions, however, enabled Mr. Layard to assert with some confidence, that the building to which they belonged was contemporary with that of Khorsabad, and of a more recent epoch than the most ancient palace of Nimroud. After inspecting and covering up for future examination a number of sculptured slabs discovered at Nimroud, Mr. Layard employed himself in packing and transporting to Bombay, by the way of Bagdad, such sculptures as could be moved with the means at his disposal. Steam-vessels having failed in their attempt to ascend the Tigris, Mr. Layard was obliged to float them down to Bagdad on rafts formed of inflated skins and beams of poplar wood. During the operation of packing and transporting the sculptures to the river, which was done by buffalo carts, belonging to the Pasha, the Pasha himself, accompanied by a large body of regular and irregular troops with three guns, paid a visit to Mr. Layard, who entertained this large company for two days, the Pasha's tents being pitched on an island in the Tigris. His Excellency was as much astonished at the sculptures as the Arabs, and the gigantic human-headed lion terrified as well as amazed his Osmanli followers.

Mr. Layard's health compelled him to renounce for awhile his labours at Nimroud, and as he required a cooler climate, he determined to visit the Tiyari mountains, inhabited by the Chaldæan or Nestorian Christians, and to return in September to resume his labours under a cooler sky. After visiting the French excavations at Khorsabad, on his way to the mountains, he passed through the town of Amadiyah, the limit of the authority of the Pasha of Mosul, and reached the village of Asheetha, where he was hospitably received by Yakoub the Rais or chief, and rapturously welcomed by the Chaldæans whom he had employed at Nimroud. This, and all the other villages of the Chaldæan Christians, with the exception of Zaweetha, had been destroyed in 1843 by the ruthless Beder Khan Bey, who massacred in cold blood nearly 10,000 of the inhabitants, and carried off as slaves large numbers of girls and children.* Yakoub, who had witnessed all the scenes of bloodshed in the Tiyari, having been continually with Beder Khan Bey as a hostage, pointed out to Mr. Layard the places where they were perpetrated. When at Lizan on the Zab, without an inhabitable house, the travellers were obliged to spread their carpets amongst the tombs in the graveyard of a roofless church, slowly rising from its ruins, and "the first edifice in the village to be rebuilt." Mr. Layard was induced to visit the scene of one of the most terrible incidents of the massacre, to which he was conducted by an active mountaineer, and he has given us the following account of it:—

"Emerging from the gardens, we found ourselves at the foot of an almost perpendicular detritus of loose stones, terminated about one thousand feet above us by a wall of lofty rocks. Up this ascent we toiled for above an hour, sometimes clinging to small shrubs, at others crawling on our hands and knees; crossing the gullies to secure a footing, or carried down by the stones which we put in motion. We soon saw evidences

* Through the noble exertions of Sir Stratford Canning, the greater number of these captives were released. He advanced even a considerable sum for their liberation. Mr. Rassam likewise obtained the release of many slaves, and maintained at his own expense, and for several months, not only the Nestorian patriarch, but many hundreds of the Chaldæans who had escaped from the massacre. Dr. Grant, the American missionary, who endeavoured to prove that the Chaldæans were the lost ten tribes of Israel—(see The Nestorians, by Asahel Grant, M.D. London, 1841)—fell a victim to his humane zeal for the fugitives. His house in Mosul was filled with them. He clothed and fed them; and he died of typhus fever, caught during his attendance upon those who, from their sufferings and want of food, had brought that disease to Mosul.


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1849. Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. 121

of the slaughter. At first, a solitary skull rolling down with the rubbish; then, heaps of blanched bones; further up, fragments of rotten garments. As we advanced, these remains became more frequent; skeletons almost entire still hung to the dwarf shrubs. I was soon compelled to renounce an attempt to count them. As we approached the wall of rock, the declivity became covered with bones, mingled with the long plaited tresses of the women, shreds of discoloured linen, and well-worn shoes. There were skulls of all ages, from the child unborn to the toothless old man. We could not avoid treading on the bones as we advanced, and rolling them with the loose stones into the valley below. 'This is nothing,' exclaimed my guide, who observed me gazing with wonder on these miserable heaps; 'they are but the remains of those that were thrown from above, or sought to escape the sword by jumping from the rock. Follow me.' He sprung upon a ledge running along the precipice that rose before us, and clambered along the face of the mountain overhanging the Zab, now scarcely visible at our feet. I followed him as well as I was able, to some distance; but when the ledge became scarcely broader than my hand, and frequently disappeared for three or four feet altogether, I could no longer advance. The Tiyari, who had easily surmounted these difficulties, returned to assist me, but in vain. I was compelled to return, after catching a glimpse of an open recess or platform covered with human remains.

"When the fugitives who had escaped from Asheetha spread the news of the massacre through the valley of Lizan, the inhabitants of the villages around collected such part of their property as they could carry, and took refuge on the platform I have just described, and on the rock above, hoping thus to escape the notice of the Kurds, or to be able to defend against any numbers a place almost inaccessible. Women and young children as well as men concealed themselves in a spot which the mountain goat could scarcely reach. Beder Khan Bey was not long in discovering their retreat, but being unable to force it, he surrounded the place with his men, and waited till they should be compelled to yield. The weather was hot and sultry; the Christians had brought but small supplies of water and provisions; after three days the first began to fail them, and they offered to capitulate. The terms proposed by Beder Khan Bey, and ratified by an oath on the Koran, were the surrender of their arms and property. The Kurds were then admitted to the platform. After they had taken the arms from their prisoners they commenced an indiscriminate slaughter, until weary of using their weapons, they hurled the few survivors from the rocks to the Zab below. Out of nearly 1000 souls who are said to have congregated here, only one escaped."—Vol. i. pp. 188-191.

On his way to Tkoma, Mr. Layard visited Raola, where the chief subject of conversation was the threatened invasion of Tkoma by Beder Khan Bey. At the village of Birijai he visited the church, in which he saw among the MSS. many ancient rituals, forms of prayer, and versions of the Scriptures; the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles on vellum; and a fine copy of the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles also on vellum, entire, with numerous illuminations, written in the year of the Seleucidæ 1552, an era which commenced in October 312 before Christ. On Sunday morning Mr. Layard was roused at dawn to attend church. The ceremonies were short and simple. Two priests officiated in white surplices: a portion of Scripture was read and explained by the principal priest in the dialect of the mountains, as the Chaldæan of the books is understood by few. The prayers were chaunted by his companion, the congregation kneeling or standing, and joining in the responses. The people used the sign of the cross when entering, and bowed at the name of Christ. The sacrament was administered to all present—men, women, and children partaking of the bread and wine. Mr. Layard's companion received it also, and they seemed to feel hurt at his declining to take it, until he stated that he did not refuse from any religious prejudice. The congregation then embraced each other at the close of the service. "I could not but contrast," says Mr. Layard, "these simple and primitive rites, with the senseless mummery and degrading forms adopted by the converted Chaldæans of the plains—the unadorned and imageless walls with the hideous pictures and monstrous deformities which encumber the churches of Mosul."

One of the Meleks of the tribe came to Birijai to welcome Mr. Layard to Tkoma Gowaia, the principal village of the district, containing 160 houses. When they reached the church they found the whole tribe assembled there in consultation on the defence of their village against the threatened invasion of the Kurds. A deputation was sent off to the Pasha of Mosul to implore his protection and aid. At the deserted and ruined village of Chonba, in the valley of the Zab, Mr. Layard's party could not find a roof under which they could pass the night, and they were obliged to spread their carpets under a cluster of walnut trees, on the very same spot where Beder Khan Bey had pitched his tent after the great massacre, and where he received Melek Ismail, the chief of the Tiyari, when he was delivered a prisoner into his hands. Yakoub, who was present at the surrender of this Christian hero, thus described the event:—

"After performing prodigies of valour, and heading his people in their defence of the pass which led into the upper districts, Melek Ismail, his thigh broken by a musket-ball, was carried by a few followers to a cavern in a secluded ravine, where he might have escaped the search


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of his enemies, had not a woman, to save her life, betrayed his retreat. He was dragged down the mountain with savage exultation, and brought before Beder Khan Bey. Here he fell upon the ground. 'Wherefore does the infidel sit before me?' exclaimed the ferocious chief, who had seen his broken limb, 'and what dog is this that has dared to shed the blood of true believers?' 'O Mir,' replied Melek Ismail, still undaunted, and partly raising himself, 'this arm has taken the lives of nearly twenty Kurds, and had God spared me, as many more would have fallen by it.' Beder Khan Bey rose and walked to the Zab, making a sign to his attendants that they should bring the Melek to him. By his direction they held the Christian chief over the river, and, severing his head from his body with a dagger, cast them into the stream. All the family of the Melek had distinguished themselves at the time of the invasion by their courage. His sister, standing by his side, slew four men before she fell mortally wounded."—Vol. i. pp. 219, 220.

On his return to Mosul, Mr. Layard visited the Rock Sculptures at Malthayiah. The sculptures are Assyrian, contemporary with the Kings of Khorsabad and Koyunjik. They consist of four tablets of bas-relief cut in the rock, and on each tablet are nine figures in the act of adoring three divinities. He visited also Alkosh, a considerable Roman Catholic valley, containing the tomb of the prophet Nahum the Alkoshite.

Although Tahyar Pasha, the governor of Mosul, had attempted to avert the calamity, yet a few days after Mr. Layard had reached Mosul, Beder Khan Bey marched his ferocious Kurds against Tkoma, massacring in cold blood men, women, and children. Three hundred women and children flying into Baz were killed in the pass; and nearly half the population fell victims to the fanaticism of the Mohammedan murderer. The Porte was roused to a sense of its duty by these atrocious deeds. Osman Pasha was sent against the rebellious Kurd, who, after suffering two signal defeats, took refuge in a mountain fortress, and obtained too favourable terms of capitulation. He was brought to Constantinople, and subsequently sent to the island of Candia;—a very inadequate punishment for rebellion and murder.

Mr. Layard has devoted an interesting chapter to an account of the origin, history, and doctrines of the Chaldæan or Nestorian Christians. This primitive sect of the Christian Church has for nearly seventeen centuries maintained the purity of their faith, and the simplicity of their worship, uncontaminated by the superstitions of the Church of Rome; and it is not easy to assign a reason why so little sympathy has been extended to them by the Protestant Churches of Europe. They deny the doctrine of purgatory; they refuse to the Virgin the titles and exaggerated veneration given her by the Romish and Eastern Churches. They deny the supremacy of the Pope; the absolute celibacy of the whole clergy; and the doctrine of transubstantiation. They neither worship images nor exhibit them; and they admit the Nicene Creed to its fullest extent. They observe the Sabbath strictly, and give the bread and wine of the Sacrament to persons of all ages.

"The Protestants of America," says Mr. Layard, "have for some time past taken a deep interest in the Chaldeans. Their missionaries have opened schools in and around Oroomiah. A printing press has been established, and several works, including the Scriptures, have already been issued in the vernacular language of the people, and printed in a character peculiar to them. Their labours have, I believe, been successful. Although members of the Independent Church, they profess to avoid any interference with the Ecclesiastical system of the Chaldeans; admitting, I am informed, that Episcopacy is the form of Church government best suited to a sect circumstanced as the Chaldeans are.

"It is to be hoped that the establishment of the authority of the Sultan in the Mountains, and the removal of several of the most fanatical and bloodthirsty of the Kurdish chiefs, will enable the Chaldeans to profess their faith without hinderance or restraint; and that freed from all fears of fresh aggression, they may, by their activity and industry, restore fresh prosperity to their mountain districts. As the only remnant of a great nation, every one must feel an interest in their history and condition, and our sympathies cannot but be excited in favour of a long persecuted people, who have merited the title of 'the Protestants of Asia.'"—Vol. i. pp. 267, 268.

A few days after Mr. Layard returned to Mosul, he and Mr. Rassam, the British Vice-Consul, received an invitation to the great periodical feast of the Yezidis, or " Worshippers of the Devil;" a designation which they have acquired either from their respect or their terror for the evil principle. Keritli Oglu, the late Pasha, had seized by treachery, as he supposed, their head or High Priest, Sheikh Nasr, but the Sheikh had artfully substituted in his place the second in authority, who was carried prisoner to Mosul. The substitute having borne with resignation the torture and imprisonment intended for Sheikh Nasr, was released by Mr. Rassam, on the advance of a considerable sum of money, which the Yezidis faithfully repaid out of the produce of their fields. Mr. Rassam was unable to avail himself of the invitation, but Mr. Layard, anxious to clear up the mystery which hung over their worship and tenets, repaired with the dragoman of the Vice-Consulate, Hodja


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Toma, to Baadri, the residence of Hussein Bey, the political chief of the Yezidis. Baadri is situated at the foot of the range of hills about five miles to the north of Ain Sifni. He was met near the village by Hussein Bey, a handsome and richly dressed youth, about 18 years of age, and by the priests and principal inhabitants on foot. Having breakfasted in Hussein's Salamlik, or reception-room, he was left during the heat of the day to his siesta. In the afternoon, he was awakened by the shrill cry of the women, which generally announces same happy event. The Sheikh himself entered soon afterwards, and announced the birth of an heir. "The child is yours," he said. "He is our first-born, and he will grow up under your shadow. Let him receive his name from you, and be hereafter under your protection." Mr. Layard was at first perplexed by the request that he should "stand godfather to a devil-worshipper's baby;" but with the sagacity which distinguishes him, he suggested, in a neat Oriental speech, the name of the child's grandfather Ali Bey, and accompanied it with a few gold coins to be sewed to the cap of the infant. Presents from the mother, and an invitation to the Harem, to see the females of the family, indicated the gratitude of all parties. The festival took place next day; and men and women purified themselves by oblations, before repairing to the tomb of their saint Sheikh Adi. The tomb stands in a narrow valley, with only one outlet. It is surrounded with buildings, inhabited by certain members of the priesthood and their families, who are chosen to watch over the sacred precincts; and low buildings are erected for the accommodation of pilgrims and pedlars during the festivities. Gigantic trees throw their shade over the open space, and streams of fresh water are conducted round the buildings.

The assembly having sat till nearly midday at the door of the tomb, the High Priest rose, and was followed by Mr. Layard into the outer court filled with pilgrims. The stores of travelling merchants were spread on the ground. Many coloured handkerchiefs and cotton stuffs hung from the trees. Dried fruits in heaps loaded the pavement, attracting the notice of groups of children. The High Priest was respectfully saluted as he passed, and he and Hussein Bey and Mr. Layard placed themselves on the slab surrounding a fountain by the road side, listening to the music of pipes and tambourines, mixed with the hum of human voices, sounding through the valley.

"I never beheld," says Mr. Layard, "a more picturesque or animated scene. Long lines of pilgrims toiled up the avenue. There was the swarthy inhabitant of the Sinjar, with his long black locks, his piercing eye, and regular features—his white robes floating in the wind, and his unwieldy matchlock thrown over his shoulder. Then followed the more wealthy families of the Kochers—the wandering tribes who live in tents in the plains, and among the hills of ancient Adiabene; the men in gay jackets and variegated turbans, with fantastic arms in their girdles; the women richly clad in silk antaris; their hair braided in many tresses, falling down their backs, and adorned with wild flowers; their foreheads almost concealed by gold and silver coins, and engraved stones hanging round their necks. Next would appear a poverty-stricken family from a village of the Mosul district; the women clad in white, pale and care-worn, bending under the weight of their children; the men urging on the heavily laden donkey. Similar groups descended from the hills. Repeated discharges of fire-arms announced to those below the arrival of every new party.

"All turned to the fountains before proceeding to their allotted station, and laying their arms on the ground kissed the hands of Sheikh Nasr, Hussein Bey, and myself. After saluting the assembled priests, they continued their way up the sides of the mountains, and chose some wide-spreading-oak or the roof of a building, for a resting place during their sojourn in the valley. They then spread their carpets, and lighting fires with dry branches and twigs, busied themselves in preparing their food. There was scarcely a tree without its colony."—Vol. i. pp. 284-286.

Dancing and music, vocal and instrumental, followed the salutation of the priests. Anxious spectators occupied every spot from which the dancers could be seen, and the branches above were bending under clusters of boys, the manœuvres of one of whom gave rise to an amusing incident, which throws some light on the extraordinary superstitions of the sect.

"The boy had fixed himself to the very end of a weak bough which was immediately above us, and threatened every moment to break under the weight. As I looked up I saw the impending danger, and made an effort by an appeal to the chief to avert it. 'If that young Sheit—' I exclaimed, about to use an epithet generally given in the East to such adventurous youths;* I checked myself immediately, but it was already too late; half the dreaded word had escaped. The effect was instantaneons; a look of horror seized those who were near enough to overhear me; it was quickly communicated to those beyond. The pleasant smile which usually played upon the fine features of the young Bey gave way to a serious and angry expression. I lamented that

* "The term Sheitan (equivalent to Satan) is usually applied in the East to a clever, cunning, or daring fellow."


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I had thus unwillingly wounded the feelings of my hosts, and was at a loss to know how I could make atonement for my indiscretion—doubting whether an apology to the evil principle or to the chief was expected. I endeavoured, however, to make them understand without venturing upon any observations which might have brought me into greater difficulties, that I regretted what had passed; but it was some time before the group resumed their composure and indulged in their previous merriment."—Vol. i. pp. 286, 287.

As the twilight faded, the Fakirs, or servants of the tomb, issued from the tomb to fill and trim the lamps on the walls of the court-yard, and in the different buildings, and even in isolated rocks, and the hollow trunks of trees. As the priests advanced, the crowds passed their right hands through the flames, and rubbed their right eye-brow, and that of the children, with the part purified by the sacred element. About an hour after sunset, the Fakirs were sent to Mr. Layard from the kitchen of the holy edifice with platters of boiled rice, roast meat, and fruit. The night scene, and the true character of the rites of the Yezidis, is thus given by our author:—

"As night advanced, those who had assembled—they must now have amounted to nearly 5000 persons—lighted torches which they carried with them, as they wandered through the forest. The effect was magical. The varied groups could be faintly distinguished through the darkness; men hurrying to and fro; women with their children seated on the house-tops, and crowds gathering round the pedlars who exposed their wares for sale in the court-yard. Thousands of lights were reflected in the fountains and streams, glimmered amongst the foliage of the trees, and danced in the distance. As I was gazing on this extraordinary scene, the hum of human voices was suddenly hushed, and a strain, solemn and melancholy, arose from the valley. It resembled some majestic chant which years before I had listened to in a distant land. Music so pathetic and so sweet I had never before heard in the East. The voices of men and women were blended in harmony with the soft notes of many flutes. At measured intervals the song was broken by the loud clash of cymbals and tambourines; and those who were without the precincts of the tomb then joined in the melody.

"I hastened to the sanctuary, and found Sheikh Nasr surrounded by the priests, seated in the inner court. The place was lighted up by torches and lamps, which threw a soft light over the white walls of the tomb and green foliage of the arbour. The Sheikhs in their white turbans and robes, all venerable men with long grey beards, were ranged on one side; on the opposite, seated on the stones, were about 30 Cawals, (one of the principal orders of the priesthood,) in their motley dresses of black and white—each performing on a tambourine or a flute. Around stood the Fakirs, in their dark garments; and the women of the orders of the priesthood, also arrayed in pure white. No others were admitted within the walls of the court.

"The same slow and solemn strain lasted for near an hour. A part of it was called 'Makam Azerat Esau,' or the Song of the Angel Jesus. It was sung by the Sheikhs, the Cawals, and the women, and occasionally by those without. I could not catch the words, nor could I prevail upon any of those present to repeat them to me. They were in Arabic, and as few of the Yezidis can speak or pronounce that language, they were not intelligible even to the experienced ear of Hodja Toma. The tambourines, which were struck simultaneously, only interrupted at intervals the song of the priests. As the time quickened they broke in more frequently. The chant gradually gave way to a lively melody, which, increasing in measure, was finally lost in a confusion of sounds. The tambourines were beaten with extraordinary energy; the flutes poured forth a rapid flood of notes; the voices were raised to the highest pitch; the men outside joined in the cry, whilst the women made the rocks resound with the shrill tahleel. The musicians, giving way to the excitement, threw their instruments into the air, and strained their limbs into every variety of contortion, until they fell exhausted to the ground. I never heard a more frightful yell than that which rose in the valley. It was midnight. The time and place were well suited to the occasion; and I gazed with wonder upon the extraordinary scene around me. Thus were probably celebrated ages ago the mysterious rites of the Corybantes, when they met in some consecrated grove. I did not marvel that such wild ceremonies had given rise to those stories of unhallowed rights and obscene myste